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Water 2018, 10(3), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10030269

Multifractal Comparison of Reflectivity and Polarimetric Rainfall Data from C- and X-Band Radars and Respective Hydrological Responses of a Complex Catchment Model

1
HMCO, Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, University of Paris-Est, Champs-sur-Marne 77455, France
2
Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Praça General Tibúrcio 80, Praia Vermelha, Rio de Janeiro 22290-270, Brazil
3
Veolia Eau Ile-de-France, Massy 91300, France
4
Direction Technique et Performance, Veolia, Aubervilliers 93300, France
5
Veolia Recherche et Innovation, Maisons-Laffitte 78600, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 23 February 2018 / Accepted: 28 February 2018 / Published: 4 March 2018
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Abstract

This paper presents a comparison between C-band and X-band radar data over an instrumented and regulated catchment of the Paris region. We study the benefits of polarimetry and the respective hydrological impacts with the help of rain gauge and flow measurements using a semi-distributed hydrological model. Both types of radar confirm the high spatial variability of the rainfall down to their space resolution (1 km and 250 m, respectively). Therefore, X-band radar data underscore the limitations of simulations using a semi-distributed model with sub-catchments of an average size of 2 km. The use of the polarimetric capacity of the Météo-France C-band radar was limited to corrections of the horizontal reflectivity, and its rainfall estimates are adjusted with the help of a rain gauge network. On the contrary, no absolute calibration and scanning optimisation were performed for the polarimetric X-band radar of the Ecole des Ponts ParisTech (hereafter referred to as the ENPC X-band radar). In spite of this and the fact that the catchment is much closer to the C-band radar than to the X-band radar (average distance of 15 km vs. 35 km, respectively), the latter seems to perform at least as well as the former, but with a higher spatial resolution. This was best highlighted with the help of a multifractal analysis, which also shows that the X-band radar was able to pick up a few rainfall extremes that were smoothed out by the C-band radar. View Full-Text
Keywords: polarimetric X-band radar; spatiotemporal variability; multifractals; hydrological modelling; complex catchments polarimetric X-band radar; spatiotemporal variability; multifractals; hydrological modelling; complex catchments
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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    Doi: http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1069034
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Paz, I.; Willinger, B.; Gires, A.; Ichiba, A.; Monier, L.; Zobrist, C.; Tisserand, B.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. Multifractal Comparison of Reflectivity and Polarimetric Rainfall Data from C- and X-Band Radars and Respective Hydrological Responses of a Complex Catchment Model. Water 2018, 10, 269.

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