Next Article in Journal
Observed Response of the Raindrop Size Distribution to Changes in the Melting Layer
Next Article in Special Issue
The Reducing Effect of Green Spaces with Different Vegetation Structure on Atmospheric Particulate Matter Concentration in BaoJi City, China
Previous Article in Journal
The Three-Dimensional Locating of VHF Broadband Lightning Interferometers
Previous Article in Special Issue
Variations of Haze Pollution in China Modulated by Thermal Forcing of the Western Pacific Warm Pool
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Atmosphere 2018, 9(8), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9080318

Long-Term Atmospheric Visibility Trends and Characteristics of 31 Provincial Capital Cities in China during 1957–2016

1
College of Landscape Architecture, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
2
Urban Forestry Research in Action, Department of Forest Resources Management, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
3
Collaborative for Advanced Landscape Planning, Faculty of Forestry, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
4
Faculty of Forestry, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
5
Faculty of Built Environment, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality in China: Past, Present and Future)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4389 KB, uploaded 17 August 2018]   |  

Abstract

Millions of pulmonary diseases, respiratory diseases, and premature deaths are caused by poor ambient air quality in developing countries, especially in China. A proven indicator of ambient air quality, atmospheric visibility (AV), has displayed continuous decline in China’s urban areas. A better understanding of the characteristics and the factors affecting AV can help the public and policy makers manage their life and work. In this study, long-term AV trends (from 1957–2016, excluding 1965–1972) and spatial characteristics of 31 provincial capital cities (PCCs) of China (excluding Taipei, Hong Kong, and Macau) were investigated. Seasonal and annual mean values of AV, percentage of ‘good’ (≥20 km) and ‘bad’ AV (<10 km), cumulative percentiles and the correlation between AV, socioeconomic factors, air pollutants and meteorological factors were analyzed in this study. Results showed that annual mean AV of the 31 PCCs in China were 14.30 km, with a declining rate of −1.07 km/decade. The AV of the 31 PCCs declined dramatically between 1973–1986, then plateaued between 1987–2006, and rebounded slightly after 2007. Correlation analysis showed that impact factors (e.g., urban size, industrial activities, residents’ activities, urban greening, air quality, and meteorological factors) contributed to the variation of AV. We also reveal that residents’ activities are the primary direct socioeconomic factors on AV. This study hopes to help the public fully understand the characteristics of AV and make recommendations about improving the air environment in China’s urban areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: atmospheric visibility; provincial capital cities; characteristics; impact factors; China atmospheric visibility; provincial capital cities; characteristics; impact factors; China
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Fu, W.; Chen, Z.; Zhu, Z.; Liu, Q.; Qi, J.; Dang, E.; Wang, M.; Dong, J. Long-Term Atmospheric Visibility Trends and Characteristics of 31 Provincial Capital Cities in China during 1957–2016. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 318.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Atmosphere EISSN 2073-4433 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top