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Atmosphere 2018, 9(5), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9050183

Simulation and Analysis of the Initiation of a Squall Line within a Meiyu Frontal System in East China

1,* , 2,3
and
1
1
College of Meteorology and Oceanography, National University of Defense Technology, Nanjing 211101, China
2
Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
3
Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73072, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 April 2018 / Revised: 28 April 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology and Meteorology)
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Abstract

Based on the ARPS (Advanced Regional Prediction System) at 2 km grid spacing, the convective initiation (CI) of cells that evolved into a squall line on the southern flank of a Meiyu front in East China is investigated. The initiations of four convective cells, denoted CI-A through CI-D, are reasonably captured in the simulation. For CI-A and CI-B, locally enhanced convergence bands associated with boundary layer horizontal convective rolls (HCRs) play a crucial role in determining the exact locations of CIs, whereas a cold outflow boundary from earlier frontal precipitation contributes to additional convergence forcing. For CI-C, initiation occurs directly over the gust front, with the frontal convergence providing the main forcing. CI-D occurs south of and sufficiently far from the gust front, and is mainly forced by the HCR circulations. With surface heat flux turned off in the model, CI is much delayed. Therefore, surface heating increases the convective instability of air south of the front and causes the development of HCRs; it also enhances the gust front convergence by mixing higher southwesterly momentum toward the surface. When the condensation process is turned off, HCRs and/or gust frontal forcing are still able to lift the low-level air to super-saturation where CI is expected. View Full-Text
Keywords: convective initiation; gust front; horizontal convective rolls; boundary layer processes convective initiation; gust front; horizontal convective rolls; boundary layer processes
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Luo, X.; Xue, M.; Fei, J. Simulation and Analysis of the Initiation of a Squall Line within a Meiyu Frontal System in East China. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 183.

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