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Atmosphere 2018, 9(4), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9040130

A Review of Paleo El Niño-Southern Oscillation

1
Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, 22100 Lund, Sweden
2
Department of Geography, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
3
Laboratory of Climate, Ocean and Atmosphere Studies, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
4
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
5
School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 February 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO))
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Abstract

The Earth has seen El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)—the leading mode of interannual climate variability—for at least millennia and likely over millions of years. This paper reviews previous studies from perspectives of both paleoclimate proxy data (from traditional sediment records to the latest high-resolution oxygen isotope records) and model simulations (including earlier intermediate models to the latest isotope-enabled coupled models). It summarizes current understanding of ENSO’s past evolution during both interglacial and glacial periods and its response to external climatic forcings such as volcanic, orbital, ice-sheet and greenhouse gas forcings. Due to the intrinsic irregularity of ENSO and its complicated relationship with other climate phenomena, reconstructions and model simulations of ENSO variability are subject to inherent difficulties in interpretations and biases. Resolving these challenges through new data syntheses, new statistical methods, more complex climate model simulations as well as direct model-data comparisons can potentially better constrain uncertainty regarding ENSO’s response to future global warming. View Full-Text
Keywords: ENSO; paleoclimate; proxy data; climate model ENSO; paleoclimate; proxy data; climate model
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Lu, Z.; Liu, Z.; Zhu, J.; Cobb, K.M. A Review of Paleo El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 130.

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