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Atmosphere 2017, 8(5), 84; doi:10.3390/atmos8050084

Emissions and Possible Environmental Implication of Engineered Nanomaterials (ENMs) in the Atmosphere

1
Institute for Energy and Environmental Technology (IUTA), Bliersheimer Str. 58-60, 47229 Duisburg, Germany
2
Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, PO Box 80015, 3508 TA Utrecht, The Netherlands
3
Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Parc ALATA, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte, France
4
Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), Friedrich-Henkel-Weg 1-25, 44149 Dortmund, Germany
5
CENIDE, University Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Str. 199, 47057 Duisburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Robert W. Talbot
Received: 5 March 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 29 April 2017 / Published: 5 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Air Quality)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1200 KB, uploaded 5 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

In spite of the still increasing number of engineered nanomaterial (ENM) applications, large knowledge gaps exist with respect to their environmental fate, especially after release into air. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of emissions and behavior of airborne engineered nanomaterials. The whole ENM lifecycle is considered from the perspective of possible releases into the atmosphere. Although in general, emissions during use phase and end-of-life seem to play a minor role compared to entry into soil and water, accidental and continuous emissions into air can occur especially during production and some use cases such as spray application. Implications of ENMs on the atmosphere as e.g., photo-catalytic properties or the production of reactive oxygen species are reviewed as well as the influence of physical processes and chemical reactions on the ENMs. Experimental studies and different modeling approaches regarding atmospheric transformation and removal are summarized. Some information exists especially for ENMs, but many issues can only be addressed by using data from ultrafine particles as a substitute and research on the specific implications of ENMs in the atmosphere is still needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: engineered nanomaterials; ENMs; release; transformation processes; aerosols; ultrafine particles; atmospheric transport engineered nanomaterials; ENMs; release; transformation processes; aerosols; ultrafine particles; atmospheric transport
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MDPI and ACS Style

John, A.C.; Küpper, M.; Manders-Groot, A.M.; Debray, B.; Lacome, J.-M.; Kuhlbusch, T.A. Emissions and Possible Environmental Implication of Engineered Nanomaterials (ENMs) in the Atmosphere. Atmosphere 2017, 8, 84.

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