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Atmosphere 2017, 8(3), 51; doi:10.3390/atmos8030051

Temporal Variability of Summer Temperature Extremes in Poland

1
Department of Climatology, Jagiellonian University, 7 Gronostajowa St., Kraków 30-387, Poland
2
Institute of Meteorology and Water Management—National Research Institute, 61 Podleśna St., Warszawa 01-673, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christina Anagnostopoulou
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 13 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Temperature Extremes and Heat/Cold Waves)
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Abstract

The aim of the study is to estimate the trend in summer maximum air temperature extremes in Poland during the period 1951–2015 by demonstrating the changes in the magnitude of temperature anomalies, temperature “surplus”, as well as the area influenced by extreme temperature occurrence. To express the latter two variables, daily maps of maximum air temperature were created to calculate the total area affected by temperature extremes. To combine the effect of spatial extent and temperature anomaly, an Extremity Index was introduced. The results confirmed an increase in summer maximum air temperature of about 0.4 °C per 10 years, evidenced also in the increase of summer extremeness. Positive anomalies have dominated since the 1990s, with the largest anomalies occurring during the summers of 1992, 1994, 2010 and finally 2015, the most exceptional summer during the analyzed period. View Full-Text
Keywords: summer maximum air temperature; temperature surplus; Extremity Index; long-term variability; Poland summer maximum air temperature; temperature surplus; Extremity Index; long-term variability; Poland
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wypych, A.; Sulikowska, A.; Ustrnul, Z.; Czekierda, D. Temporal Variability of Summer Temperature Extremes in Poland. Atmosphere 2017, 8, 51.

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