Next Article in Journal
Trends of Heat Waves and Cold Spells over 1951–2015 in Guangzhou, China
Previous Article in Journal
A Simple Two-Dimensional Ray-Tracing Visual Tool in the Complex Tropospheric Environment
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Atmosphere 2017, 8(2), 36; doi:10.3390/atmos8020036

Lightning and Rainfall Characteristics in Elevated vs. Surface Based Convection in the Midwest that Produce Heavy Rainfall

Department of Atmospheric Science, School of Natural Resources, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vernon Cooray
Received: 3 January 2017 / Revised: 27 January 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 14 February 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5067 KB, uploaded 14 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

There are differences in the character of surface-based and elevated convection, and one type may pose a greater threat to life or property. The lightning and rainfall characteristics of eight elevated and eight surface-based thunderstorm cases that occurred between 2007 and 2010 over the central Continental United States were tested for statistical differences. Only events that produced heavy rain (>50.8 mm·day−1) were investigated. The nonparametric Mann–Whitney test was used to determine if the characteristics of elevated thunderstorm events were significantly different than the surface based events. Observations taken from these cases include: rainfall–lightning ratios (RLR) within the heavy rain area, the extent of the heavy rainfall area, cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes, CG flashes·h−1, positive CG flashes, positive CG flashes·h−1, percentage of positive CG flashes within the heavy rainfall area, and maximum and mean rainfall amounts within the heavy rain area. Results show that elevated convection cases produced more rainfall, total CG lightning flashes, and positive CG lightning flashes than surface based thunderstorms. More available moisture and storm morphology explain these differences, suggesting elevated convection is a greater lightning and heavy rainfall threat than surface based convection. View Full-Text
Keywords: lightning; elevated convection; heavy rainfall; surface-based convection lightning; elevated convection; heavy rainfall; surface-based convection
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kastman, J.S.; Market, P.S.; Fox, N.I.; Foscato, A.L.; Lupo, A.R. Lightning and Rainfall Characteristics in Elevated vs. Surface Based Convection in the Midwest that Produce Heavy Rainfall. Atmosphere 2017, 8, 36.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Atmosphere EISSN 2073-4433 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top