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Atmosphere 2017, 8(1), 19; doi:10.3390/atmos8010019

Tracheobronchial and Alveolar Particle Surface Area Doses in Smokers

1
Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, via G. di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, Italy
2
Queensland University of Technology, 2 George St, Brisbane QLD 4000, Australia
3
INAIL, Settore Ricerca, Certificazione e Verifica, via IV Novembre 144, 00187 Rome, Italy
4
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture, University of Cagliari, via Marengo 2, 09123 Cagliari, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Robert W. Talbot
Received: 29 November 2016 / Revised: 11 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 January 2017 / Published: 19 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrafine Particles: Determination, Behavior and Human Health Effects)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [573 KB, uploaded 19 January 2017]   |  

Abstract

Cigarette smoke is the main cause of lung cancer events. Mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS) is a direct concern for smokers, but also the secondhand smoke (SHS) contributes to the smoker exposure. In addition, smoker exposure is affected by the “free-smoke” particle exposure (B), related to the micro-environments where smokers spend time. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the daily alveolar and tracheobronchial deposited fractions of airborne particles for smokers as the sum of these three contributions: MSS, SHS, and B. Measurements of particle surface area distributions in the MSS were performed through a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer, an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, and a Thermo-dilution system on five types of conventional cigarettes. A Monte Carlo method was then applied to evaluate the most probable value of dose received during the inhalation of MSS by smokers. Measurements of particle concentrations in SHS and at the “free-smoke” particle background (B) were performed through 24-h monitoring at a personal scale of adult smoker through hand-held devices. This paper found that the total daily deposited dose for typical smokers was 1.03 × 105 mm2·day−1. The main contribution of such a huge daily dose was addressable to the MSS (98%) while SHS contributed 1.1%, increasing up to 2% for people smoking only while traveling in a car. View Full-Text
Keywords: cigarette smoking; active smokers; particle dose; personal exposure; deposited surface area cigarette smoking; active smokers; particle dose; personal exposure; deposited surface area
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fuoco, F.C.; Stabile, L.; Buonanno, G.; Scungio, M.; Manigrasso, M.; Frattolillo, A. Tracheobronchial and Alveolar Particle Surface Area Doses in Smokers. Atmosphere 2017, 8, 19.

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