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Atmosphere 2015, 6(4), 451-473; doi:10.3390/atmos6040451

Precipitation Sensitivity to the Mean Radius of Drop Spectra: Comparison of Single- and Double-Moment Bulk Microphysical Schemes

Institute of Meteorology, University of Belgrade, 16 Dobračina, Belgrade 11000, Serbia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Robert W. Talbot
Received: 6 December 2014 / Revised: 18 March 2015 / Accepted: 20 March 2015 / Published: 1 April 2015
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Abstract

In this study, two bulk microphysical schemes were compared across mean radius values of the entire drop spectra. A cloud-resolving mesoscale model was used to analyze surface precipitation characteristics. The model included the following microphysical categories: water vapour, cloud droplets, raindrops, ice crystals, snow, graupel, frozen raindrops and hail. Two bulk schemes were used: a single-moment scheme in which the mean radius was specified as a parameter and a double-moment scheme in which the mean radius of drops was calculated diagnostically with a fixed value for the cloud droplet number concentration. Experiments were conducted out for three values of the mean radius (in the single-moment scheme) and two cloud droplet number concentrations (in the double-moment scheme). There were large differences in the surface precipitation for the two schemes, the simulated precipitation generated by the double-moment scheme had a higher sensitivity. The single-moment scheme generated an unrealistic collection rate of cloud droplets by raindrops and hail as well as unrealistic evaporation of rain and melting of solid hydrometeors; these processes led to inaccurate timing and amounts of surface precipitation. View Full-Text
Keywords: cloud-resolving model; convective clouds; bulk microphysical scheme; size distribution function; surface precipitation cloud-resolving model; convective clouds; bulk microphysical scheme; size distribution function; surface precipitation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kovačević, N.; Ćurić, M. Precipitation Sensitivity to the Mean Radius of Drop Spectra: Comparison of Single- and Double-Moment Bulk Microphysical Schemes. Atmosphere 2015, 6, 451-473.

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