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Atmosphere 2015, 6(12), 1858-1870;

Potential Sources of Trace Metals and Ionic Species in PM2.5 in Guadalajara, Mexico: A Case Study during Dry Season

Centro de Investigaciones Químicas, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Básicas y Aplicadas, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Colonia Chamilpa, C.P. 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico
Cátedras, Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Av. Insurgentes Sur 1582, Colonia Crédito Constructor, Del. Benito Juárez, C.P. 03940, Ciudad de México, D.F., Mexico
Centro de Investigación y Asistencia en Tecnología y Diseño del Estado de Jalisco, Av. Normalistas 800, Colonia Colinas de la Normal, C.P. 44270, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico
Universidad de Guanajuato, Carretera Irapuato-Silao, Ex Hacienda El Copal Km 9, C.P. 36500, Irapuato, Guanajuato, Mexico
Comisión Ambiental de la Megalópolis, Calle el Oro 17, Colonia Roma Norte, Del. Cuauhtemoc, C.P. 06700, Ciudad de Mexico, D.F., Mexico
Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Departamento de Agronomía, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Bogotá, C.P. 111321, Colombia
Peace Corps, 1111 20th Street, NW Washington, DC 20526, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rebecca Sheesley
Received: 4 August 2015 / Revised: 18 October 2015 / Accepted: 20 November 2015 / Published: 1 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality and Source Apportionment)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1150 KB, uploaded 1 December 2015]   |  


This study was conducted from May 25 to June 6, 2009 at a downtown location (Centro) and an urban sector (Miravalle) site in the Metropolitan Zone of Guadalajara (MZG) in Mexico. The atmospheric concentrations of PM2.5 and its elemental and inorganic components were analyzed to identify their potential sources during the warm dry season. The daily measurements of PM2.5 (24 h) exceeded the WHO (World Health Organization) air quality guidelines (25 μg·m−3). The most abundant element was found to be Fe, accounting for 59.8% and 72.2% of total metals mass in Centro and Miravalle, respectively. The enrichment factor (EF) analysis showed a more significant contribution of non-crustal sources to the elements in ambient PM2.5 in Centro than in the Miravalle site. Particularly, the highest enrichment of Cu suggested motor vehicle-related emissions in Centro. The most abundant secondary ionic species (NO3−; SO42− and NH4+) and the ratio NO3−/SO42− corroborated the important impact of mobile sources to fine particles at the sampling sites. In addition, the ion balance indicated that particles collected in Miravalle experienced neutralization processes likely due to a higher contribution of geological material. Other important contributors to PM2.5 included biomass burning by emissions transported from the forest into the city. View Full-Text
Keywords: PM2.5; trace metals; enrichment factor; ionic species; emissions sources PM2.5; trace metals; enrichment factor; ionic species; emissions sources

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Murillo-Tovar, M.A.; Saldarriaga-Noreña, H.; Hernández-Mena, L.; Campos-Ramos, A.; Cárdenas-González, B.; Ospina-Noreña, J.E.; Cosío-Ramírez, R.; Díaz-Torres, J.J.; Smith, W. Potential Sources of Trace Metals and Ionic Species in PM2.5 in Guadalajara, Mexico: A Case Study during Dry Season. Atmosphere 2015, 6, 1858-1870.

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