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Atmosphere 2015, 6(11), 1816-1832; doi:10.3390/atmos6111816

Investigations of the Diurnal Variation of Vertical HCHO Profiles Based on MAX-DOAS Measurements in Beijing: Comparisons with OMI Vertical Column Data

1
Department of Spatial Information Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737, Korea
2
Department of Urban Environmental Engineering, Kyungnam University, Changwon-si, Gyeongsangnam-do 631-701, Korea
3
Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University, 1–33 Yayoicho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522, Japan
4
Department of BioEnvironmental Energy, Pusan National University, Gyeongsangnam-do 627-706, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Robert W. Talbot
Received: 22 July 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
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Abstract

An investigation into the diurnal characteristics of vertical formaldehyde (HCHO) profiles was conducted based on multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements in Beijing during the CAREBEIJING campaign, covering a month-long period through August and September 2006. Vertical HCHO profiles were retrieved based on a combined differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique and an optimal estimation method (OEM). The HCHO volume-mixing ratio (VMR) was found to be highest in the layer from the surface up to an altitude of 1 km and to decrease with altitude above this layer. In all retrieved profiles, HCHO was not detected in the layer from 3–4 km. Over the diurnal cycle, the HCHO VMR values were generally highest at 15:00 local time (LT) and were lower in the morning and late afternoon. The mean HCHO VMRs were 6.17, 1.82, and 0.80 ppbv for the 0–1, 1–2, and 2–3-km layers, respectively, at 15:00 LT, whereas they were 3.54 (4.79), 1.06 (1.43), and 0.46 (0.63) ppbv for the 0–1, 1–2, and 2–3-km layers, respectively, at 09:00 (17:00) LT. The HCHO VMRs reached their highest values at 15:00 LT on August 19, which were 17.71, 5.20, and 2.31 ppbv for the 0–1, 1–2, and 2–3-km layers, respectively. This diurnal pattern implies that the photo-oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was most active at 15:00 LT for several days during the campaign period. In a comparison of the derived HCHO VCDs with those obtained from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements, the HCHO vertical column density (VCD) values obtained from the OMI measurements tend to be smaller than those from the MAX-DOAS. View Full-Text
Keywords: HCHO profile; diurnal HCHO; MAX-DOAS; OMI; DOAS HCHO profile; diurnal HCHO; MAX-DOAS; OMI; DOAS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, H.; Ryu, J.; Irie, H.; Jang, S.-H.; Park, J.; Choi, W.; Hong, H. Investigations of the Diurnal Variation of Vertical HCHO Profiles Based on MAX-DOAS Measurements in Beijing: Comparisons with OMI Vertical Column Data. Atmosphere 2015, 6, 1816-1832.

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