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Atmosphere 2014, 5(3), 536-556; doi:10.3390/atmos5030536

Temporal Variability of Atmospheric Total Gaseous Mercury in Windsor, ON, Canada

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Ave, Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
Current Affiliation: Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3E5, Canada.
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Received: 25 March 2014 / Revised: 22 May 2014 / Accepted: 23 May 2014 / Published: 12 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Mercury)
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Abstract

Atmospheric Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM) concentrations were monitored in Windsor, Ontario, Canada, during 2007 to 2011, to investigate the temporal variability of TGM. Over five years, the average concentration was 2.0 ± 1.3 ng/m3. A gradual decrease in annual TGM concentrations from 2.0 ng/m3 in year 2007 to 1.7 ng/m3 in 2009 was observed. The seasonal means show the highest TGM concentrations during the summer months (2.4 ± 2.0 ng/m3), followed by winter (1.9 ± 1.4 ng/m3), fall (1.8 ± 0.81 ng/m3), and spring (1.7 ± 0.73 ng/m3). Diurnal patterns in summer, fall, and winter were similar. A different diurnal pattern was observed in spring with an early depletion in the morning. The TGM concentrations were lower on weekends (1.8 ± 0.77 ng/m3) than on weekdays (2.0 ± 1.5 ng/m3), suggesting 10% of TGM in Windsor was attributable to emissions from industrial sectors in the region. Directional TGM concentrations also indicated southwesterly air masses were TGM enriched due to emissions from coal-fired power plants and industrial facilities. Correlation and principal component analysis identified that combustion of fossil fuel, ambient temperature, wind speed, synoptic systems, and O3 concentrations influenced TGM concentrations significantly. Overall, inter-annual, seasonal, day-of-week, and diurnal variability was observed in Windsor. The temporal patterns were affected by anthropogenic and surface emissions, as well as atmospheric mixing and chemistry. View Full-Text
Keywords: atmospheric mercury; total gaseous mercury; temporal variability; principal component analysis; directional concentrations; pollutant rose; long-range transport atmospheric mercury; total gaseous mercury; temporal variability; principal component analysis; directional concentrations; pollutant rose; long-range transport
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, X.; Akhtar, U.; Clark, K.; Wang, X. Temporal Variability of Atmospheric Total Gaseous Mercury in Windsor, ON, Canada. Atmosphere 2014, 5, 536-556.

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