Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Atmosphere, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2014), Pages 156-472

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-16
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle Air-Sea Exchange of Legacy POPs in the North Sea Based on Results of Fate and Transport, and Shelf-Sea Hydrodynamic Ocean Models
Atmosphere 2014, 5(2), 156-177; doi:10.3390/atmos5020156
Received: 30 October 2013 / Revised: 20 January 2014 / Accepted: 21 January 2014 / Published: 4 April 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The air-sea exchange of two legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs), γ-HCH and PCB 153, in the North Sea, is presented and discussed using results of regional fate and transport and shelf-sea hydrodynamic ocean models for the period 1996–2005. Air-sea exchange occurs through gas
[...] Read more.
The air-sea exchange of two legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs), γ-HCH and PCB 153, in the North Sea, is presented and discussed using results of regional fate and transport and shelf-sea hydrodynamic ocean models for the period 1996–2005. Air-sea exchange occurs through gas exchange (deposition and volatilization), wet deposition and dry deposition. Atmospheric concentrations are interpolated into the model domain from results of the EMEP MSC-East multi-compartmental model (Gusev et al, 2009). The North Sea is net depositional for γ-HCH, and is dominated by gas deposition with notable seasonal variability and a downward trend over the 10 year period. Volatilization rates of γ-HCH are generally a factor of 2–3 less than gas deposition in winter, spring and summer but greater in autumn when the North Sea is net volatilizational. A downward trend in fugacity ratios is found, since gas deposition is decreasing faster than volatilization. The North Sea is net volatilizational for PCB 153, with highest rates of volatilization to deposition found in the areas surrounding polluted British and continental river sources. Large quantities of PCB 153 entering through rivers lead to very high local rates of volatilization. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Multi-Year Aerosol Characterization for the Greater Tehran Area Using Satellite, Surface, and Modeling Data
Atmosphere 2014, 5(2), 178-197; doi:10.3390/atmos5020178
Received: 17 December 2013 / Revised: 7 March 2014 / Accepted: 18 March 2014 / Published: 4 April 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1592 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study reports a multi-year (2000–2009) aerosol characterization for metropolitan Tehran and surrounding areas using multiple datasets (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Goddard Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART), and surface and upper
[...] Read more.
This study reports a multi-year (2000–2009) aerosol characterization for metropolitan Tehran and surrounding areas using multiple datasets (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Goddard Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART), and surface and upper air data from local stations). Monthly trends in aerosol characteristics are examined in the context of the local meteorology, regional and local emission sources, and air mass back-trajectory data. Dust strongly affects the region during the late spring and summer months (May–August) when aerosol optical depth (AOD) is at its peak and precipitation accumulation is at a minimum. In addition, the peak AOD that occurs in July is further enhanced by a substantial number of seasonal wildfires in upwind regions. Conversely, AOD is at a minimum during winter; however, reduced mixing heights and a stagnant lower atmosphere trap local aerosol emissions near the surface and lead to significant reductions in visibility within Tehran. The unique meteorology and topographic setting makes wintertime visibility and surface aerosol concentrations particularly sensitive to local anthropogenic sources and is evident in the noteworthy improvement in visibility observed on weekends. Scavenging of aerosol due to precipitation is evident during the winter when a consistent increase in surface visibility and concurrent decrease in AOD is observed in the days after rain compared with the days immediately before rain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality and Climate)
Open AccessArticle Sensitivity of a Remote Alpine System to the Stockholm and LRTAP Regulations in POP Emissions
Atmosphere 2014, 5(2), 198-210; doi:10.3390/atmos5020198
Received: 27 February 2014 / Revised: 27 March 2014 / Accepted: 31 March 2014 / Published: 10 April 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (304 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) have been restricted and prohibited at national level for several decades now and since the 21st century at international level under the Stockholm Convention and the Convention of Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP). A high mountain lake sediment core
[...] Read more.
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) have been restricted and prohibited at national level for several decades now and since the 21st century at international level under the Stockholm Convention and the Convention of Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP). A high mountain lake sediment core was sampled in the Alps (Gossenköllesee) in summer 2010 and analyzed on POPs to examine whether the expected decreasing trends due to the implementation of the international Conventions could be observed. Higher POPs concentrations were observed in the sections corresponding to the period of large scale production and usage. p,p’-DDE and p,p’-DDD showed maximum concentrations in the core sections corresponding to the 1970s. These concentrations decreased to more or less constant levels in the top sediments, which is in agreement with the timing of past usage and banning of this pesticide. On the other hand, PCBs and HCB peaked in 1980s and the concentrations fluctuated afterwards. These observed profiles suggest that the studied site is still under influence of primary or secondary emissions and that the regulations of the international Conventions have still not been noticed in this site. Full article
Open AccessArticle Analysis and Application of the Relationship between Cumulonimbus (Cb) Cloud Features and Precipitation Based on FY-2C Image
Atmosphere 2014, 5(2), 211-229; doi:10.3390/atmos5020211
Received: 29 December 2013 / Revised: 25 March 2014 / Accepted: 28 March 2014 / Published: 14 April 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2528 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although cumulonimbus (Cb) clouds are the main source of precipitation in south China, the relationship between Cb cloud characteristics and precipitation remains unclear. Accordingly, the primary objective of this study was to thoroughly analyze the relationship between Cb cloud features and precipitation both
[...] Read more.
Although cumulonimbus (Cb) clouds are the main source of precipitation in south China, the relationship between Cb cloud characteristics and precipitation remains unclear. Accordingly, the primary objective of this study was to thoroughly analyze the relationship between Cb cloud features and precipitation both at the pixel and cloud patch scale, and then to apply it in precipitation estimation in the Huaihe River Basin using China’s first operational geostationary meteorological satellite, FengYun-2C (FY-2C), and the hourly precipitation data of 286 gauges from 2007. First, 31 Cb parameters (14 parameters of three pixel features and 17 parameters of four cloud patch features) were extracted based on a Cb tracking method using an artificial neural network (ANN) cloud classification as a pre-processing procedure to identify homogeneous Cb patches. Then, the relationship between Cb cloud properties and precipitation was analyzed and applied in a look-up table algorithm to estimate precipitation. The results were as follows: (1) Precipitation increases first and then declines with increasing values for cold cloud and time evolution parameters, and heavy precipitation may occur not only near the convective center, but also on the front of the Cb clouds on the pixel scale. (2) As for the cloud patch scale, precipitation is typically associated with cold cloud and rough cloud surfaces, whereas the coldest and roughest cloud surfaces do not correspond to the strongest rain. Moreover, rainfall has no obvious relationship with the cloud motion features and varies significantly over different life stages. The involvement of mergers and splits of minor Cb patches is crucial for precipitation processes. (3) The correlation coefficients of the estimated rain rate and gauge rain can reach 0.62 in the cross-validation period and 0.51 in the testing period, which indicates the feasibility of the further application of the relationship in precipitation estimation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cloud and Precipitation)
Open AccessArticle Mercury Speciation at a Coastal Site in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Results from the Grand Bay Intensive Studies in Summer 2010 and Spring 2011
Atmosphere 2014, 5(2), 230-251; doi:10.3390/atmos5020230
Received: 28 February 2014 / Revised: 12 April 2014 / Accepted: 14 April 2014 / Published: 29 April 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2118 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During two intensive studies in summer 2010 and spring 2011, measurements of mercury species including gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and particulate-bound mercury (PBM), trace chemical species including O3, SO2, CO, NO, NOY, and
[...] Read more.
During two intensive studies in summer 2010 and spring 2011, measurements of mercury species including gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and particulate-bound mercury (PBM), trace chemical species including O3, SO2, CO, NO, NOY, and black carbon, and meteorological parameters were made at an Atmospheric Mercury Network (AMNet) site at the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR) in Moss Point, Mississippi. Surface measurements indicate that the mean mercury concentrations were 1.42 ± 0.12 ng∙m−3 for GEM, 5.4 ± 10.2 pg∙m−3 for GOM, and 3.1 ± 1.9 pg∙m−3 for PBM during the summer 2010 intensive and 1.53 ± 0.11 ng∙m−3 for GEM, 5.3 ± 10.2 pg∙m−3 for GOM, and 5.7 ± 6.2 pg∙m−3 for PBM during the spring 2011 intensive. Elevated daytime GOM levels (>20 pg∙m−3) were observed on a few days in each study and were usually associated with either elevated O3 (>50 ppbv), BrO, and solar radiation or elevated SO2 (>a few ppbv) but lower O3 (~20–40 ppbv). This behavior suggests two potential sources of GOM: photochemical oxidation of GEM and direct emissions of GOM from nearby local sources. Lack of correlation between GOM and Beryllium-7 (7Be) suggests little influence on surface GOM from downward mixing of GOM from the upper troposphere. These data were analyzed using the HYSPLIT back trajectory model and principal component analysis in order to develop source-receptor relationships for mercury species in this coastal environment. Trajectory frequency analysis shows that high GOM events were generally associated with high frequencies of the trajectories passing through the areas with high mercury emissions, while low GOM levels were largely associated the trajectories passing through relatively clean areas. Principal component analysis also reveals two main factors: direct emission and photochemical processes that were clustered with high GOM and PBM. This study indicates that the receptor site, which is located in a coastal environment of the Gulf of Mexico, experienced impacts from mercury sources that are both local and regional in nature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Mercury) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Assessing the Influence of Seasonal and Spatial Variations on the Estimation of Secondary Organic Carbon in Urban Particulate Matter by Applying the EC-Tracer Method
Atmosphere 2014, 5(2), 252-272; doi:10.3390/atmos5020252
Received: 15 January 2014 / Revised: 22 March 2014 / Accepted: 16 April 2014 / Published: 29 April 2014
PDF Full-text (2749 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The elemental carbon (EC)-tracer method was applied to PM10 and PM1 data of three sampling sites in the City of Berlin from February to October 2010. The sites were characterized by differing exposure to traffic and vegetation. The aim was to
[...] Read more.
The elemental carbon (EC)-tracer method was applied to PM10 and PM1 data of three sampling sites in the City of Berlin from February to October 2010. The sites were characterized by differing exposure to traffic and vegetation. The aim was to determine the secondary organic carbon (SOC) concentration and to describe the parameters influencing the application of the EC-tracer method. The evaluation was based on comparisons with results obtained from positive matrix factorization (PMF) applied to the same samples. To obtain site- and seasonal representative primary OC/EC-ratios ([OC/EC]p), the EC-tracer method was performed separately for each station, and additionally discrete for samples with high and low contribution of biomass burning. Estimated SOC-concentrations for all stations were between 11% and 33% of total OC. SOC-concentrations obtained with PMF exceeded EC-tracer results more than 100% at the park in the period with low biomass burning emissions in PM10. The deviations were besides others attributed to the high ratio of biogenic to combustion emissions and to direct exposure to vegetation. The occurrences of biomass burning emissions in contrast lead to increased SOC-concentrations compared to PMF in PM10. The obtained results distinguish that the EC-tracer-method provides well comparable results with PMF if sites are strongly influenced by one characteristic primary combustion source, but was found to be adversely influenced by direct and relatively high biogenic emissions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Tracing Sources of Total Gaseous Mercury to Yongheung Island off the Coast of Korea
Atmosphere 2014, 5(2), 273-291; doi:10.3390/atmos5020273
Received: 27 February 2014 / Revised: 11 April 2014 / Accepted: 15 April 2014 / Published: 30 April 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1509 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations were measured on Yongheung Island off the coast of Korea between mainland Korea and Eastern China in 2013. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively evaluate the impact of local mainland Korean sources and
[...] Read more.
In this study, total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations were measured on Yongheung Island off the coast of Korea between mainland Korea and Eastern China in 2013. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively evaluate the impact of local mainland Korean sources and regional Chinese sources on local TGM concentrations using multiple tools including the relationship with other pollutants, meteorological data, conditional probability function, backward trajectories, and potential source contribution function (PSCF) receptor modeling. Among the five sampling campaigns, two sampling periods were affected by both mainland Korean and regional sources, one was caused by mainland vehicle emissions, another one was significantly impacted by regional sources, and, in the remaining period, Hg volatilization from oceans was determined to be a significant source and responsible for the increase in TGM concentration. PSCF identified potential source areas located in metropolitan areas, western coal-fired power plant locations, and the southeastern industrial area of Korea as well as the Liaoning province, the largest Hg emitting province in China. In general, TGM concentrations generally showed morning peaks (07:00~12:00) and was significantly correlated with solar radiation during all sampling periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Mercury) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Atmospheric Black Carbon along a Cruise Path through the Arctic Ocean during the Fifth Chinese Arctic Research Expedition
Atmosphere 2014, 5(2), 292-306; doi:10.3390/atmos5020292
Received: 21 February 2014 / Revised: 16 April 2014 / Accepted: 22 April 2014 / Published: 5 May 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (21154 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
From July to September 2012, during the fifth Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE), the concentrations of black carbon (BC) aerosols inside the marine boundary layer were measured by an in situ aethalometer. BC concentrations ranged from 0.20 ng∙m−3 to 1063.20 ng∙m
[...] Read more.
From July to September 2012, during the fifth Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE), the concentrations of black carbon (BC) aerosols inside the marine boundary layer were measured by an in situ aethalometer. BC concentrations ranged from 0.20 ng∙m−3 to 1063.20 ng∙m−3, with an average of 75.74 ng∙m−3. The BC concentrations were significantly higher over the mid-latitude and coastal areas than those over the remote ocean and high latitude areas. The highest average concentration was found over offshore China (643.44 ng∙m−3) during the cruise, while the lowest average was found over the Arctic Ocean (5.96 ng∙m−3). BC aerosol was found mainly affected by the terrestrial input and displayed seasonal and spatial variations. Compared with the results from the third and fourth CHINARE of summer 2008, and summer 2010, the inter-annual variation of BC over the Arctic Ocean was negligible. Full article
Open AccessArticle Designation of Environmental Impacts and Damages of Turbojet Engine: A Case Study with GE-J85
Atmosphere 2014, 5(2), 307-323; doi:10.3390/atmos5020307
Received: 3 January 2014 / Revised: 7 February 2014 / Accepted: 15 May 2014 / Published: 23 May 2014
PDF Full-text (683 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Between the troposphere and stratosphere layers of the atmosphere is a critical zone for collecting emissions and negative effects on the Earth (ecological, humanity, and resources). Aircrafts are the main causes of the impacts in this layer. In this study, environmental effects (Damages,
[...] Read more.
Between the troposphere and stratosphere layers of the atmosphere is a critical zone for collecting emissions and negative effects on the Earth (ecological, humanity, and resources). Aircrafts are the main causes of the impacts in this layer. In this study, environmental effects (Damages, Specific Fuel Consumption Impact-SFCI and Thrust Environmental Impact-TEI) of different fueled (Jet-A and Liquid Hydrogen-H2) jet engines (a case study with GE-J85) are investigated. This comparison was made between 7000–10,000 m altitude and 0.7–1.0 Mach. The maximum damages were found to be 82.44 PDF∙m2∙yr (Potentially Disappeared Fraction from one m2 area during one year), 1.75 × 10−3 DALY (disability-adjusted life years), and 8100 MJ Surplus for Ecosystem Quality, Human Health and Resources, respectively, at Jet-A fueled aircraft, 1 Mach, and 7000 m altitude. Additionally, the maximum SFCI was calculated as 344.03 mPts/kg at H2-fueled, 0.7 Mach, and 10,000 m; the minimum TEI was calculated as 13.78 mPts/N at H2-fueled aircraft, 0.7 Mach, and 9000 m. The best environmental (low specific fuel consumption and thrust impacts) flight situations were found in this study at a high altitude and a low Mach number. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Atmospheric Travel Distances of Several PAHs Calculated by Two Fate and Transport Models (The Tool and ELPOS) with Experimental Values Derived from a Peat Bog Transect
Atmosphere 2014, 5(2), 324-341; doi:10.3390/atmos5020324
Received: 19 December 2013 / Revised: 17 April 2014 / Accepted: 18 April 2014 / Published: 23 May 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1316 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Multimedia fate and transport models are used to evaluate the long range transport potential (LRTP) of organic pollutants, often by calculating their characteristic travel distance (CTD). We calculated the CTD of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals using two models: the OECD
[...] Read more.
Multimedia fate and transport models are used to evaluate the long range transport potential (LRTP) of organic pollutants, often by calculating their characteristic travel distance (CTD). We calculated the CTD of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals using two models: the OECD POV& LRTP Screening Tool (The Tool), and ELPOS. The absolute CTDs of PAHs estimated with the two models agree reasonably well for predominantly particle-bound congeners, while discrepancies are observed for more volatile congeners. We test the performance of the models by comparing the relative ranking of CTDs with the one of experimentally determined travel distances (ETDs). ETDs were estimated from historical deposition rates of pollutants to peat bogs in Eastern Canada. CTDs and ETDs of PAHs indicate a low LRTP. To eliminate the high influence on specific model assumptions and to emphasize the difference between the travel distances of single PAHs, ETDs and CTDs were analyzed relative to the travel distances of particle-bound compounds. The ETDs determined for PAHs, Cu, and Zn ranged from 173 to 321 km with relative uncertainties between 26% and 46%. The ETDs of two metals were shorter than those of the PAHs. For particle-bound PAHs the relative ETDs and CTDs were similar, while they differed for Chrysene. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Mercury Plumes in the Global Upper Troposphere Observed during Flights with the CARIBIC Observatory from May 2005 until June 2013
Atmosphere 2014, 5(2), 342-369; doi:10.3390/atmos5020342
Received: 24 February 2014 / Revised: 28 April 2014 / Accepted: 30 April 2014 / Published: 28 May 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (4712 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Tropospheric sections of flights with the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrumented Container) observatory from May 2005 until June 2013, are investigated for the occurrence of plumes with elevated Hg concentrations. Additional information on CO, CO
[...] Read more.
Tropospheric sections of flights with the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrumented Container) observatory from May 2005 until June 2013, are investigated for the occurrence of plumes with elevated Hg concentrations. Additional information on CO, CO2, CH4, NOy, O3, hydrocarbons, halocarbons, acetone and acetonitrile enable us to attribute the plumes to biomass burning, urban/industrial sources or a mixture of both. Altogether, 98 pollution plumes with elevated Hg concentrations and CO mixing ratios were encountered, and the Hg/CO emission ratios for 49 of them could be calculated. Most of the plumes were found over East Asia, in the African equatorial region, over South America and over Pakistan and India. The plumes encountered over equatorial Africa and over South America originate predominantly from biomass burning, as evidenced by the low Hg/CO emission ratios and elevated mixing ratios of acetonitrile, CH3Cl and particle concentrations. The backward trajectories point to the regions around the Rift Valley and the Amazon Basin, with its outskirts, as the source areas. The plumes encountered over East Asia and over Pakistan and India are predominantly of urban/industrial origin, sometimes mixed with products of biomass/biofuel burning. Backward trajectories point mostly to source areas in China and northern India. The Hg/CO2 and Hg/CH4 emission ratios for several plumes are also presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Mercury) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Patterns of Precipitation and Convection Occurrence over the Mediterranean Basin Derived from a Decade of Microwave Satellite Observations
Atmosphere 2014, 5(2), 370-398; doi:10.3390/atmos5020370
Received: 13 January 2014 / Revised: 8 April 2014 / Accepted: 22 April 2014 / Published: 30 May 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (11099 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Mediterranean region is characterized by its vulnerability to changes in the water cycle, with the impact of global warming on the water resources being one of the major concerns in social, economical and scientific ambits. Even if precipitation is the best-known term
[...] Read more.
The Mediterranean region is characterized by its vulnerability to changes in the water cycle, with the impact of global warming on the water resources being one of the major concerns in social, economical and scientific ambits. Even if precipitation is the best-known term of the Mediterranean water budget, large uncertainties remain due to the lack of suitable offshore observational data. In this study, we use the data provided by the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B (AMSU-B) on board NOAA satellites to detect and analyze precipitating and convective events over the last decade at spatial resolution of 0.2° latitude × 0.2° longitude. AMSU-B observation shows that rain occurrence is widespread over the Mediterranean in wintertime while reduced in the eastern part of the basin in summer. Both precipitation and convection occurrences display a weak diurnal cycle over sea. In addition, convection occurrences, which are essentially located over land during summertime, shift to mostly over the sea during autumn with maxima in the Ionian sub-basin and the Adriatic Sea. Precipitation occurrence is also inferred over the sea from two other widely used climatological datasets, HOAPS (Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data) and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis interim (ERA-Interim). There is generally a rather fair agreement between these climatologies for describing the large-scale patterns such as the strong latitudinal gradient of rain and eastward rain signal propagation. Furthermore, the higher spatial resolution of AMSU-B measurements (16 km at nadir) gives access to mesoscale details in the region (e.g., coastal areas). AMSU-B measurements show less rain occurrences than HOAPS during wintertime, thereby suggesting that some of the thresholds used in our method might be too stringent during this season. We also observed that convection occurrences in ERA-Interim are systematically lower than those derived from AMSU-B. These results are potentially valuable to evaluate the rainfall parameterization in weather and climate models and to constrain ocean models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cloud and Precipitation)
Open AccessArticle Seasonal and Diurnal Variations of Total Gaseous Mercury in Urban Houston, TX, USA
Atmosphere 2014, 5(2), 399-419; doi:10.3390/atmos5020399
Received: 10 March 2014 / Revised: 22 April 2014 / Accepted: 28 April 2014 / Published: 30 May 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2697 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Total gaseous mercury (THg) observations in urban Houston, over the period from August 2011 to October 2012, were analyzed for their seasonal and diurnal characteristics. Our continuous measurements found that the median level of THg was 172 parts per quadrillion by volume (ppqv),
[...] Read more.
Total gaseous mercury (THg) observations in urban Houston, over the period from August 2011 to October 2012, were analyzed for their seasonal and diurnal characteristics. Our continuous measurements found that the median level of THg was 172 parts per quadrillion by volume (ppqv), consistent with the current global background level. The seasonal variation showed that the highest median THg mixing ratios occurred in summer and the lowest ones in winter. This seasonal pattern was closely related to the frequency of THg episodes, energy production/consumption and precipitation in the area. The diurnal variations of THg exhibited a pattern where THg accumulated overnight and reached its maximum level right before sunrise, followed by a rapid decrease after sunrise. This pattern was clearly influenced by planetary boundary layer (PBL) height and horizontal winds, including the complex sea breeze system in the Houston area. A predominant feature of THg in the Houston area was the frequent occurrence of large THg spikes. Highly concentrated pollution plumes revealed that mixing ratios of THg were related to not only the combustion tracers CO, CO2, and NO, but also CH4 which is presumably released from oil and natural gas operations, landfills and waste treatment. Many THg episodes occurred simultaneously with peaks in CO, CO2, CH4, NOx, and/or SO2, suggesting possible contributions from similar sources with multi-source types. Our measurements revealed that the mixing ratios and variability of THg were primarily controlled by nearby mercury sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Mercury) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Atmospheric Abundances, Trends and Emissions of CFC-216ba, CFC-216ca and HCFC-225ca
Atmosphere 2014, 5(2), 420-434; doi:10.3390/atmos5020420
Received: 28 February 2014 / Revised: 16 May 2014 / Accepted: 27 May 2014 / Published: 4 June 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (376 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The first observations of the feedstocks, CFC-216ba (1,2-dichlorohexafluoropropane) and CFC-216ca (1,3-dichlorohexafluoropropane), as well as the CFC substitute HCFC-225ca (3,3-dichloro-1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoropropane), are reported in air samples collected between 1978 and 2012 at Cape Grim, Tasmania. Present day (2012) mixing ratios are 37.8 ± 0.08 ppq (parts
[...] Read more.
The first observations of the feedstocks, CFC-216ba (1,2-dichlorohexafluoropropane) and CFC-216ca (1,3-dichlorohexafluoropropane), as well as the CFC substitute HCFC-225ca (3,3-dichloro-1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoropropane), are reported in air samples collected between 1978 and 2012 at Cape Grim, Tasmania. Present day (2012) mixing ratios are 37.8 ± 0.08 ppq (parts per quadrillion; 1015) and 20.2 ± 0.3 ppq for CFC-216ba and CFC-216ca, respectively. The abundance of CFC-216ba has been approximately constant for the past 20 years, whilst that of CFC-216ca is increasing, at a current rate of 0.2 ppq/year. Upper tropospheric air samples collected in 2013 suggest a further continuation of this trend. Inferred annual emissions peaked 421 at 0.18 Gg/year (CFC-216ba) and 0.05 Gg/year (CFC-216ca) in the mid-1980s and then decreased sharply as expected from the Montreal Protocol phase-out schedule for CFCs. The atmospheric trend of CFC-216ca and CFC-216ba translates into continuing emissions of around 0.01 Gg/year in 2011, indicating that significant banks still exist or that they are still being used. HCFC-225ca was not detected in air samples collected before 1992. The highest mixing ratio of 52 ± 1 ppq was observed in 2001. Increasing annual emissions were found in the 1990s (i.e., when HCFC-225ca was being introduced as a replacement for CFCs). Emissions peaked around 1999 at about 1.51 Gg/year. In accordance with the Montreal Protocol, restrictions on HCFC consumption and the short lifetime of HCFC-225ca, mixing ratios declined after 2001 to 23.3 ± 0.7 ppq by 2012. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ozone Depletion and Climate Change)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Characterization of PM10 and PM2.5 and Their Metals Content in Different Typologies of Sites in South-Eastern Italy
Atmosphere 2014, 5(2), 435-453; doi:10.3390/atmos5020435
Received: 20 March 2014 / Revised: 6 May 2014 / Accepted: 15 May 2014 / Published: 16 June 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1632 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Samples of PM10 and PM2.5 were collected discontinuously between 2003 and 2010 at fifteen monitoring sites (urban, background, industrial) in the south-eastern part of Italy using a mobile laboratory. In total, 483 PM10 and 154 PM2.5 samples were collected
[...] Read more.
Samples of PM10 and PM2.5 were collected discontinuously between 2003 and 2010 at fifteen monitoring sites (urban, background, industrial) in the south-eastern part of Italy using a mobile laboratory. In total, 483 PM10 and 154 PM2.5 samples were collected and chemically analyzed for the determination of metal content. Data were used to investigate concentration differences among the typologies of sites, the seasonal patterns, and the influence of advection of Saharan dust (SD). PM10 and PM2.5 average concentrations increase from background to industrial and urban sites but the ratio PM2.5/PM10 is significantly lower (0.61 ± 0.10) in background sites. The average metals concentrations in PM10 and in PM2.5 do not show a clear dependence on site typology apart an increase in crustal elements in background sites and an increase in the enrichment factors of Ni and of Cr in PM10 in industrial sites. Urban sites show a statistically significant increase of PM10 average concentration during the cold seasons (autumn and winter), likely associated with the anthropogenic urban emissions, instead, the background sites show a decrease in concentrations during the cold seasons. This could be due to more frequent cases of SD observed in spring and summer periods that mainly influence background sites. The seasonal difference on the average concentration for industrial sites is not statistically significant. The SD cases influence both PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations but their effect is significantly larger on PM10. Over the studied area, the effect is relatively limited on long-term average PM10 (estimated increase of 3.2%) and PM2.5 (estimated increase of 1.5%) concentrations but it is significant on daily concentrations. It is estimated an increase of 22% of the probability to overcome the air quality standard daily threshold for PM10. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality and Climate)
Open AccessArticle Performance of Using Cascade Forward Back Propagation Neural Networks for Estimating Rain Parameters with Rain Drop Size Distribution
Atmosphere 2014, 5(2), 454-472; doi:10.3390/atmos5020454
Received: 27 December 2013 / Revised: 22 May 2014 / Accepted: 27 May 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (965 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of our study is to estimate the parameters M (water content), R (rain rate) and Z (radar reflectivity) with raindrop size distribution by using the neural network method. Our investigations have been conducted in five African localities: Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire), Boyele (Congo-Brazzaville),
[...] Read more.
The aim of our study is to estimate the parameters M (water content), R (rain rate) and Z (radar reflectivity) with raindrop size distribution by using the neural network method. Our investigations have been conducted in five African localities: Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire), Boyele (Congo-Brazzaville), Debuncha (Cameroon), Dakar (Senegal) and Niamey (Niger). For the first time, we have predicted the values of the various parameters in each locality after using neural models (LANN) which have been developed with locally obtained disdrometer data. We have shown that each LANN can be used under other latitudes to get satisfactory results. Secondly, we have also constructed a model, using as train-data, a combination of data issued from all five localities. With this last model called PANN, we could obtain satisfactory estimates forall localities. Lastly, we have distinguished between stratiform and convective rain while building the neural networks. In fact, using simulation data from stratiform rain situations, we have obtained smaller root mean square errors (RMSE) between neural values and disdrometer values than using data issued from convective situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cloud and Precipitation)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Atmosphere Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
atmosphere@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Atmosphere
Back to Top