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Atmosphere, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2013), Pages 72-236

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Observation and Analysis of Particle Nucleation at a Forest Site in Southeastern US
Atmosphere 2013, 4(2), 72-93; doi:10.3390/atmos4020072
Received: 2 February 2013 / Accepted: 22 March 2013 / Published: 3 April 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (8497 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study examines the characteristics of new particle formation at a forest site in southeastern US. Particle size distributions above a Loblolly pine plantation were measured between November 2005 and September 2007 and analyzed by event type and frequency, as well as in
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This study examines the characteristics of new particle formation at a forest site in southeastern US. Particle size distributions above a Loblolly pine plantation were measured between November 2005 and September 2007 and analyzed by event type and frequency, as well as in relation to meteorological and atmospheric chemical conditions. Nucleation events occurred on 69% of classifiable observation days. Nucleation frequency was highest in spring. The highest daily nucleation (class A and B events) frequency (81%) was observed in April. The average total particle number concentration on nucleation days was 8,684 cm−3 (10 < Dp < 250 nm) and 3,991 cm−3 (10 < Dp < 25 nm) with a mode diameter of 28 nm with corresponding values on non-nucleation days of 2,143 cm−3, 655 cm−3, and 44.5 nm, respectively. The annual average growth rate during nucleation events was 2.7 ± 0.3 nm·h−1. Higher growth rates were observed during summer months with highest rates observed in May (5.0 ± 3.6 nm·h−1). Winter months were associated with lower growth rates, the lowest occurring in February (1.2 ± 2.2 nm·h−1). Consistent with other studies, nucleation events were more likely to occur on days with higher radiative flux and lower relative humidity compared to non-nucleation days. The daily minimum in the condensation sink, which typically occurred 2 to 3 h after sunrise, was a good indicator of the timing of nucleation onset. The intensity of the event, indicated by the total particle number concentration, was well correlated with photo-synthetically active radiation, used here as a surrogate for total global radiation, and relative humidity. Even though the role of biogenic VOC in the initial nuclei formation is not understood from this study, the relationships with chemical precursors and secondary aerosol products associated with nucleation, coupled with diurnal boundary layer dynamics and seasonal meteorological patterns, suggest that H2SO4 and biogenic VOC play a role in nucleated particle growth at this site. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Droughts in Semi-Arid Regions by Using Meteorological Drought Indices
Atmosphere 2013, 4(2), 94-112; doi:10.3390/atmos4020094
Received: 27 February 2013 / Revised: 25 March 2013 / Accepted: 12 April 2013 / Published: 25 April 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1815 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Six meteorological drought indices including percent of normal (PN), standardized precipitation index (SPI), China-Z index (CZI), modified CZI (MCZI), Z-Score (Z), the aridity index of E. de Martonne (I) are compared and evaluated for assessing spatio-temporal dynamics of droughts in six climatic regions
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Six meteorological drought indices including percent of normal (PN), standardized precipitation index (SPI), China-Z index (CZI), modified CZI (MCZI), Z-Score (Z), the aridity index of E. de Martonne (I) are compared and evaluated for assessing spatio-temporal dynamics of droughts in six climatic regions in Iran. Results indicated that by consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of the mentioned drought predictors in Iran, the Z-Score, CZI and MCZI could be used as a good meteorological drought predictor. Depending on the month, the length of drought and climatic conditions of the region, they are an alternative to the SPI that has limitations both because of only a few available long term data series in Iran and its complex structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agrometeorology: From Scientific Analysis to Operational Application)
Open AccessArticle Decreases in Mercury Wet Deposition over the United States during 2004–2010: Roles of Domestic and Global Background Emission Reductions
Atmosphere 2013, 4(2), 113-131; doi:10.3390/atmos4020113
Received: 8 April 2013 / Revised: 26 April 2013 / Accepted: 6 May 2013 / Published: 10 May 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1857 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Wet deposition of mercury (Hg) across the United States is influenced by changes in atmospheric conditions, domestic emissions and global background emissions. We examine trends in Hg precipitation concentrations at 47 Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) sites during 2004–2010 by using the GEOS-Chem nested-grid
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Wet deposition of mercury (Hg) across the United States is influenced by changes in atmospheric conditions, domestic emissions and global background emissions. We examine trends in Hg precipitation concentrations at 47 Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) sites during 2004–2010 by using the GEOS-Chem nested-grid Hg simulation. We run the model with constant anthropogenic emissions and subtract the model results from the observations. This helps to remove the variability in observed Hg concentrations caused by meteorological factors, including precipitation. We find significant decreasing trends in Hg concentrations in precipitation at MDN sites in the Northeast (−4.1 ± 0.49% yr−1) and Midwest (−2.7 ± 0.68% yr−1). Over the Southeast (−0.53 ± 0.59% yr−1), trends are weaker and not significant, while over the West, trends are highly variable. We conduct model simulations assuming a 45% decrease in Hg emissions from domestic sources in the modeled period and a uniform 12% decrease in background atmospheric Hg concentrations. The combination of domestic emission reductions and decreasing background concentrations explains the observed trends over the Northeast and Midwest, with domestic emission reductions accounting for 58–46% of the decreasing trends. Over the Southeast, we overestimate the observed decreasing trend, indicating potential issues with our assumption of uniformly decreasing background Hg concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Mercury) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Spatial and Temporal Variations of Atmospheric Aerosol in Osaka
Atmosphere 2013, 4(2), 157-168; doi:10.3390/atmos4020157
Received: 15 February 2013 / Revised: 12 May 2013 / Accepted: 13 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (391 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is well known that the aerosol distribution in Asia is complex due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the behavior of natural dusts. Therefore, detailed observations of atmospheric particles in Asian urban cities are
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It is well known that the aerosol distribution in Asia is complex due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the behavior of natural dusts. Therefore, detailed observations of atmospheric particles in Asian urban cities are important. In this work, we focus on the spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric particles around Higashi-Osaka in Japan. Higashi-Osaka is located in the eastern part of Osaka, the second-largest city in Japan, and is famous for small- and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises. For this study, we placed various ground measurement devices around the Higashi-Osaka campus of Kinki University including a Cimel sunphotometer supported by NASA/AERONET (Aerosol robotics network), suspended particulate matter (SPM) sampler and LIDAR (light detection and ranging). Individual particle analyses with a SEM (scanning electron microscope)/EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer) show the temporal variations of particle properties, such as size, shape and components, during a dust event on 21 March 2010. The simultaneous measurement using a portable sun photometer with AERONET was conducted from April to November 2011. A comparison of the data at each site and the combination of the observed LIDAR data and model simulations indicate the difference in the transportation processes between dust and anthropogenic particles. We suppose this difference is attributed to the differences in the vertical aerosol profiles, where one aerosol is transported over Mount Ikoma and the other is blocked by it. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparative Spectral Analysis and Correlation Properties of Observed and Simulated Total Column Ozone Records
Atmosphere 2013, 4(2), 198-213; doi:10.3390/atmos4020198
Received: 24 April 2013 / Revised: 9 May 2013 / Accepted: 11 May 2013 / Published: 14 June 2013
PDF Full-text (13841 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present a statistical analysis of total column ozone records obtained from satellite measurements and from two global climate chemistry models on global scale. Firstly, a spectral weight analysis is performed where the relative strength of semiannual, annual and quasi-biennial oscillations are determined
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We present a statistical analysis of total column ozone records obtained from satellite measurements and from two global climate chemistry models on global scale. Firstly, a spectral weight analysis is performed where the relative strength of semiannual, annual and quasi-biennial oscillations are determined with respect to the integrated power spectra. The comparison reveals some anomalies in the model representations at each spectral component. The tails of the spectra demonstrate that both models underestimate high frequency (daily) ozone variability, which might have a complex origin, since several dynamical processes affect short time changes of the ozone level at a given location. Secondly, detrended fluctuation analysis is exploited to analyze two-point correlations of anomaly time series. Both models reproduce the characteristic geographic dependence of correlation strength over the overlapping area with empirical observations (latitude band between 60°S and 60°N). The values of precise correlation exponents are hard to obtain over regions where quasi-biennial oscillations or other strong nonstationarities (ozone hole) are present. In spite of all the numerical difficulties, significant long range correlations are detected for total ozone over all geographic locations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ozone Depletion and Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle How Does a Regional Climate Model Modify the Projected Climate Change Signal of the Driving GCM: A Study over Different CORDEX Regions Using REMO
Atmosphere 2013, 4(2), 214-236; doi:10.3390/atmos4020214
Received: 1 February 2013 / Revised: 20 May 2013 / Accepted: 3 June 2013 / Published: 14 June 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (13281 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Global and regional climate model simulations are frequently used for regional climate change assessments and in climate impact modeling studies. To reflect the inherent and methodological uncertainties in climate modeling, the assessment of regional climate change requires ensemble simulations from different global and
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Global and regional climate model simulations are frequently used for regional climate change assessments and in climate impact modeling studies. To reflect the inherent and methodological uncertainties in climate modeling, the assessment of regional climate change requires ensemble simulations from different global and regional climate model combinations. To interpret the spread of simulated results, it is useful to understand how the climate change signal is modified in the GCM-RCM modelmodelgeneral circulation model-regional climate model (GCM-RCM) chain. This kind of information can also be useful for impact modelers; for the process of experiment design and when interpreting model results. In this study, we investigate how the simulated historical and future climate of the Max-Planck-Institute earth system model (MPI-ESM) is modified by dynamic downscaling with the regional model REMO in different world regions. The historical climate simulations for 1950–2005 are driven by observed anthropogenic forcing. The climate projections are driven by projected anthropogenic forcing according to different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). The global simulations are downscaled with REMO over the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) domains Africa, Europe, South America and West Asia from 2006–2100. This unique set of simulations allows for climate type specific analysis across multiple world regions and for multi-scenarios. We used a classification of climate types by Köppen-Trewartha to define evaluation regions with certain climate conditions. A systematic comparison of near-surface temperature and precipitation simulated by the regional and the global model is done. In general, the historical time period is well represented by the GCM and the RCM. Some different biases occur in the RCM compared to the GCM as in the Amazon Basin, northern Africa and the West Asian domain. Both models project similar warming, although somewhat less so by the RCM for certain regions and climate types. A common feature in regions of tropical climate types is that REMO shows dryer climate conditions than forMax Planck Institute for Meteorology-Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) for RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, leading to an opposing sign in the climate change signal. With an increase in radiative forcing from RCP 2.6 to RCP 8.5 and towards the end of the 21st century, some of the detected differences between GCM and RCM are more pronounced. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Numerical Modeling of Climate-Chemistry Connections: Recent Developments and Future Challenges
Atmosphere 2013, 4(2), 132-156; doi:10.3390/atmos4020132
Received: 26 March 2013 / Revised: 3 May 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 17 May 2013
PDF Full-text (1015 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reviews the current state and development of different numerical model classes that are used to simulate the global atmospheric system, particularly Earth’s climate and climate-chemistry connections. The focus is on Chemistry-Climate Models. In general, these serve to examine dynamical and chemical
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This paper reviews the current state and development of different numerical model classes that are used to simulate the global atmospheric system, particularly Earth’s climate and climate-chemistry connections. The focus is on Chemistry-Climate Models. In general, these serve to examine dynamical and chemical processes in the Earth atmosphere, their feedback, and interaction with climate. Such models have been established as helpful tools in addition to analyses of observational data. Definitions of the global model classes are given and their capabilities as well as weaknesses are discussed. Examples of scientific studies indicate how numerical exercises contribute to an improved understanding of atmospheric behavior. There, the focus is on synergistic investigations combining observations and model results. The possible future developments and challenges are presented, not only from the scientific point of view but also regarding the computer technology and respective consequences for numerical modeling of atmospheric processes. In the future, a stronger cross-linkage of subject-specific scientists is necessary, to tackle the looming challenges. It should link the specialist discipline and applied computer science. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ozone Depletion and Climate Change)

Other

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Open AccessTechnical Note The Weather Generator Used in the Empirical Statistical Downscaling Method, WETTREG
Atmosphere 2013, 4(2), 169-197; doi:10.3390/atmos4020169
Received: 21 December 2012 / Revised: 20 March 2013 / Accepted: 27 May 2013 / Published: 7 June 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (830 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, the weather generator (WG) used by the empirical statistical downscaling method, weather situation-based regionalization method (in German: WETTerlagen-basierte REGionalisierungsmethode, WETTREG), is described. It belongs to the class of multi-site parametric models that aim at the representation of the spatial dependence
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In this paper, the weather generator (WG) used by the empirical statistical downscaling method, weather situation-based regionalization method (in German: WETTerlagen-basierte REGionalisierungsmethode, WETTREG), is described. It belongs to the class of multi-site parametric models that aim at the representation of the spatial dependence among weather variables with conditioning on exogenous atmospheric predictors. The development of the WETTREG WG was motivated by (i) the requirement of climate impact modelers to obtain input data sets that are consistent and can be produced in a relatively economic way and (ii) the well-sustained hypothesis that large scale atmospheric features are well reproduced by climate models and can be used as a link to regional climate. The WG operates at daily temporal resolution. The conditioning factor is the temporal development of the frequency distribution of circulation patterns. Following a brief description of the strategy of classifying circulation patterns that have a strong link to regional climate, the bulk of this paper is devoted to a description of the WG itself. This includes aspects, such as the utilized building blocks, seasonality or the methodology with which a signature of climate change is imprinted onto the generated time series. Further attention is given to particularities of the WG’s conditioning processes, as well as to extremes, areal representativity and the interface of WGs and user requirements. Full article

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