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Genes 2018, 9(8), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9080401

Pathogenesis of the Candida parapsilosis Complex in the Model Host Caenorhabditis elegans

1
Special Mycology Laboratory, Division of Infectious Diseases, Federal University of São Paulo-UNIFESP, 04039-032 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
2
Division of Infectious Diseases, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, USA
3
Microorganisms Cell Biology Laboratory, Microbiology Department, Biological Sciences Institute, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, MG, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pathogenesis in Humans: The Growing Threat)
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Abstract

Caenorhabditis elegans is a valuable tool as an infection model toward the study of Candida species. In this work, we endeavored to develop a C. elegans-Candida parapsilosis infection model by using the fungi as a food source. Three species of the C. parapsilosis complex (C. parapsilosis (sensu stricto), Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis) caused infection resulting in C. elegans killing. All three strains that comprised the complex significantly diminished the nematode lifespan, indicating the virulence of the pathogens against the host. The infection process included invasion of the intestine and vulva which resulted in organ protrusion and hyphae formation. Importantly, hyphae formation at the vulva opening was not previously reported in C. elegans-Candida infections. Fungal infected worms in the liquid assay were susceptible to fluconazole and caspofungin and could be found to mount an immune response mediated through increased expression of cnc-4, cnc-7, and fipr-22/23. Overall, the C. elegans-C. parapsilosis infection model can be used to model C. parapsilosis host-pathogen interactions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida parapsilosis; Caenorhabditis elegans; hyphae; invertebrate infection model; host-pathogen interaction Candida parapsilosis; Caenorhabditis elegans; hyphae; invertebrate infection model; host-pathogen interaction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Souza, A.C.R.; Burgwyn Fuchs, B.; de Souza Alves, V.; Jayamani, E.; Colombo, A.L.; Mylonakis, E. Pathogenesis of the Candida parapsilosis Complex in the Model Host Caenorhabditis elegans. Genes 2018, 9, 401.

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