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Genes 2018, 9(8), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9080391

PRDM Histone Methyltransferase mRNA Levels Increase in Response to Curative Hormone Treatment for Cryptorchidism-Dependent Male Infertility

1
Cryptorchidism Research Institute, Kindermedizinisches Zentrum Liestal, Bahnhofplatz 11, CH-4410 Liestal, Switzerland
2
Department of Pathology Kantonspital Liestal, 4410 Liestal, Switzerland
3
Children’s Surgery Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Vilnius, 01513 Vilnius, Lithuania
4
Institute for Pathology, National Centre of Pathology, Affiliate of Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Klinikos, 08406 Vilnius, Lithuania
5
Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, 4058 Basel, Switzerland
6
Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, 4058 Basel, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Human Genomics and Genetic Diseases)
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Abstract

There is a correlation between cryptorchidism and an increased risk of testicular cancer and infertility. During orchidopexy, testicular biopsies are performed to confirm the presence of type A dark (Ad) spermatogonia, which are a marker for low infertility risk (LIR). The Ad spermatogonia are absent in high infertility risk (HIR) patients, who are treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) to significantly lower the risk of infertility. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the molecular events involved in cryptorchidism. Previously, we compared the transcriptomes of LIR versus HIR patients treated with and without hormones. Here, we interpreted data regarding members of the positive regulatory domain-containing (PRDM) family; some of which encoded histone methyltransferases that are important for reproduction. We found there were lower levels of PRDM1, PRDM6, PRDM9, PRDM13, and PRDM14 mRNA in the testes of HIR patients compared with LIR patients, and that PRDM7, PRDM9, PRDM12, and PRDM16 were significantly induced after GnRHa treatment. Furthermore, we observed PRDM9 protein staining in the cytoplasm of germ cells in the testes from LIR and HIR patients, indicating that the mRNA and protein levels corresponded. This result indicated that the curative hormonal therapy for cryptorchidism involved conserved chromatin modification enzymes. View Full-Text
Keywords: PRDM; cryptorchidism; GnRHa; infertility; RNA-sequencing PRDM; cryptorchidism; GnRHa; infertility; RNA-sequencing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Hadziselimovic, F.; Cathomas, G.; Verkauskas, G.; Dasevicius, D.; Stadler, M.B. PRDM Histone Methyltransferase mRNA Levels Increase in Response to Curative Hormone Treatment for Cryptorchidism-Dependent Male Infertility. Genes 2018, 9, 391.

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