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Genes 2018, 9(5), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9050242

Regulation of the X Chromosome in the Germline and Soma of Drosophila melanogaster Males

Division of Evolutionary Biology, Faculty of Biology, LMU Munich, Grosshaderner Str. 2, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried, Germany
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Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 27 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 4 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Evolutionary Life Cycle of Sex Chromosomes)
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Abstract

During the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, the sex-specific Y chromosome degenerates, while the X chromosome evolves new mechanisms of regulation. Using bioinformatic and experimental approaches, we investigate the expression of the X chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster. We observe nearly complete X chromosome dosage compensation in male somatic tissues, but not in testis. The X chromosome contains disproportionately fewer genes with high expression in testis than the autosomes, even after accounting for the lack of dosage compensation, which suggests that another mechanism suppresses their expression in the male germline. This is consistent with studies of reporter genes and transposed genes, which find that the same gene has higher expression when autosomal than when X-linked. Using a new reporter gene that is expressed in both testis and somatic tissues, we find that the suppression of X-linked gene expression is limited to genes with high expression in testis and that the extent of the suppression is positively correlated with expression level. View Full-Text
Keywords: X chromosome; X suppression; germline; soma; dosage compensation; Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome; X suppression; germline; soma; dosage compensation; Drosophila melanogaster
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Argyridou, E.; Parsch, J. Regulation of the X Chromosome in the Germline and Soma of Drosophila melanogaster Males. Genes 2018, 9, 242.

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