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Genes 2018, 9(2), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9020089

Embedded Disposable Functionalized Electrochemical Biosensor with a 3D-Printed Flow Cell for Detection of Hepatic Oval Cells (HOCs)

1
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
2
Institute for Synthetic Bioarchitecture, Department of Nanobiotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, 1190 Vienna, Austria
3
Zimmer and Peacock Ltd., Royston SG8 9JL, UK
4
Institute of Medical and Polymer Engineering, Technical University of Munich (TUM), 85748 Garching, Germany
5
Centre for Cell Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
6
Department of Biology, Jeddah University, Jeddah 23218, Saudi Arabia
7
Research Centre, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, Jeddah 21499, Saudi Arabia
8
Microfluidic ChipShop Gmbh, 07747 Jena, Germany
9
Mathematics and Natural Sciences Department, The American University of Iraq, Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah 46001, Iraq
10
Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
11
Faculty of Medicine, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (LMU), 80539 Munich, Germany
12
Faculty of Medicine, Technical University of Munich (TUM), 81675 Munich, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 January 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 14 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From the Lab-on-a-Chip to the Organ-on-a-Chip)
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Abstract

Hepatic oval cells (HOCs) are considered the progeny of the intrahepatic stem cells that are found in a small population in the liver after hepatocyte proliferation is inhibited. Due to their small number, isolation and capture of these cells constitute a challenging task for immunosensor technology. This work describes the development of a 3D-printed continuous flow system and exploits disposable screen-printed electrodes for the rapid detection of HOCs that over-express the OV6 marker on their membrane. Multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes have a chitosan film that serves as a scaffold for the immobilization of oval cell marker antibodies (anti-OV6-Ab), which enhance the sensitivity of the biomarker and makes the designed sensor specific for oval cells. The developed sensor can be easily embedded into the 3D-printed flow cell to allow cells to be exposed continuously to the functionalized surface. The continuous flow is intended to increase capture of most of the target cells in the specimen. Contact angle measurements were performed to characterize the nature and quality of the modified sensor surface, and electrochemical measurements (cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV)) were performed to confirm the efficiency and selectivity of the fabricated sensor to detect HOCs. The proposed method is valuable for capturing rare cells and could provide an effective tool for cancer diagnosis and detection. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D-printed flow-cell; hepatic oval cells; cancer diagnosis; multiwall carbon nanotubes 3D-printed flow-cell; hepatic oval cells; cancer diagnosis; multiwall carbon nanotubes
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Damiati, S.; Peacock, M.; Leonhardt, S.; Damiati, L.; Baghdadi, M.A.; Becker, H.; Kodzius, R.; Schuster, B. Embedded Disposable Functionalized Electrochemical Biosensor with a 3D-Printed Flow Cell for Detection of Hepatic Oval Cells (HOCs). Genes 2018, 9, 89.

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