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Genes 2017, 8(9), 216; doi:10.3390/genes8090216

X Chromosome Evolution in Cetartiodactyla

1
Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, SB RAS, Lavrentiev Ave. 8/2, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
2
Synthetic Biology Unit, Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova Str. 1, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
3
The Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Royal College Street, London NW1 0TU, UK
4
Animal Sciences Department, College of ACES, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801, USA
5
Frederick National Laboratory of Cancer Research, Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc., Frederick, MD 21702, USA
6
Catoctin Zoo and Wildlife Preserve, Thurmont, MD 21788, USA
7
San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research, 15600 San Pasqual Valley Road, Escondido, CA 92027, USA
8
Theodosius Dobzhansky Center for Genome Bioinformatics, Saint-Petersburg State University, Sredniy Av. 41A, Saint-Petersburg 199034, Russia
9
Oceanographic Center, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale 3301 College Ave, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas Liehr
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 24 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromosomal Evolution)
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Abstract

The phenomenon of a remarkable conservation of the X chromosome in eutherian mammals has been first described by Susumu Ohno in 1964. A notable exception is the cetartiodactyl X chromosome, which varies widely in morphology and G-banding pattern between species. It is hypothesized that this sex chromosome has undergone multiple rearrangements that changed the centromere position and the order of syntenic segments over the last 80 million years of Cetartiodactyla speciation. To investigate its evolution we have selected 26 evolutionarily conserved bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the cattle CHORI-240 library evenly distributed along the cattle X chromosome. High-resolution BAC maps of the X chromosome on a representative range of cetartiodactyl species from different branches: pig (Suidae), alpaca (Camelidae), gray whale (Cetacea), hippopotamus (Hippopotamidae), Java mouse-deer (Tragulidae), pronghorn (Antilocapridae), Siberian musk deer (Moschidae), and giraffe (Giraffidae) were obtained by fluorescent in situ hybridization. To trace the X chromosome evolution during fast radiation in specious families, we performed mapping in several cervids (moose, Siberian roe deer, fallow deer, and Pere David’s deer) and bovid (muskox, goat, sheep, sable antelope, and cattle) species. We have identified three major conserved synteny blocks and rearrangements in different cetartiodactyl lineages and found that the recently described phenomenon of the evolutionary new centromere emergence has taken place in the X chromosome evolution of Cetartiodactyla at least five times. We propose the structure of the putative ancestral cetartiodactyl X chromosome by reconstructing the order of syntenic segments and centromere position for key groups. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pecora; Ruminantia; cattle bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones; fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH); intrachromosomal rearrangements; centromere reposition; inversion Pecora; Ruminantia; cattle bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones; fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH); intrachromosomal rearrangements; centromere reposition; inversion
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Proskuryakova, A.A.; Kulemzina, A.I.; Perelman, P.L.; Makunin, A.I.; Larkin, D.M.; Farré, M.; Kukekova, A.V.; Lynn Johnson, J.; Lemskaya, N.A.; Beklemisheva, V.R.; Roelke-Parker, M.E.; Bellizzi, J.; Ryder, O.A.; O’Brien, S.J.; Graphodatsky, A.S. X Chromosome Evolution in Cetartiodactyla. Genes 2017, 8, 216.

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