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Genes 2017, 8(8), 207; doi:10.3390/genes8080207

Long Noncoding RNAs as Diagnostic and Therapeutic Targets in Type 2 Diabetes and Related Complications

Department of Biomedical Research, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO 80210, USA
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Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 16 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-coding RNAs)
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Abstract

Protein-coding genes represent only a small fraction of the human genome. In the past, the majority of the genomic sequence has been considered transcriptionally silent, but recent large-scale studies have uncovered an array of functionally significant elements, including non-protein-coding transcripts, within these noncoding regions of the human genome. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), a class of noncoding transcripts with lengths >200 nucleotides, are pervasively transcribed in the genome and function as signals, decoys, guides, or scaffolds to regulate gene expression. More than 200 diseases have been associated with dysregulated or dysfunctional lncRNAs, and new associations continue to accumulate in the literature. The role of lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and related complications has only recently been recognized, but there is already evidence for their involvement in many of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the disease. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the functions and underlying mechanisms of lncRNA activity with a focus on type 2 diabetes mellitus and related renal and retinal complications of the disease. We also discuss the potential of lncRNAs to serve as therapeutic targets for drug development and diagnostic markers for clinical applications in the management of diabetes. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes; diabetic kidney disease; diabetic retinopathy; microvascular complications; noncoding RNA; lncRNA; epigenetics; siRNA; antisense oligonucleotides diabetes; diabetic kidney disease; diabetic retinopathy; microvascular complications; noncoding RNA; lncRNA; epigenetics; siRNA; antisense oligonucleotides
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Leti, F.; DiStefano, J.K. Long Noncoding RNAs as Diagnostic and Therapeutic Targets in Type 2 Diabetes and Related Complications. Genes 2017, 8, 207.

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