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Genes 2017, 8(2), 74; doi:10.3390/genes8020074

The Intra-S Checkpoint Responses to DNA Damage

Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eishi Noguchi
Received: 7 January 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 February 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Replication Controls)
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Abstract

Faithful duplication of the genome is a challenge because DNA is susceptible to damage by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic genotoxins, such as free radicals and UV light. Cells activate the intra-S checkpoint in response to damage during S phase to protect genomic integrity and ensure replication fidelity. The checkpoint prevents genomic instability mainly by regulating origin firing, fork progression, and transcription of G1/S genes in response to DNA damage. Several studies hint that regulation of forks is perhaps the most critical function of the intra-S checkpoint. However, the exact role of the checkpoint at replication forks has remained elusive and controversial. Is the checkpoint required for fork stability, or fork restart, or to prevent fork reversal or fork collapse, or activate repair at replication forks? What are the factors that the checkpoint targets at stalled replication forks? In this review, we will discuss the various pathways activated by the intra-S checkpoint in response to damage to prevent genomic instability. View Full-Text
Keywords: DNA damage; intra-S checkpoint; ATR; Chk1; fork stability; origin regulation DNA damage; intra-S checkpoint; ATR; Chk1; fork stability; origin regulation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Iyer, D.R.; Rhind, N. The Intra-S Checkpoint Responses to DNA Damage. Genes 2017, 8, 74.

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