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Genes 2017, 8(2), 62; doi:10.3390/genes8020062

Elaborated Action of the Human Primosome

Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases, Fred & Pamela Buffett Cancer Center, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA
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Received: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 4 February 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Replication Controls)
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Abstract

The human primosome is a 340-kilodalton complex of primase (DNA-dependent RNA polymerase) and DNA polymerase α, which initiates genome replication by synthesizing chimeric RNA-DNA primers for DNA polymerases δ and ϵ. Accumulated biochemical and structural data reveal the complex mechanism of concerted primer synthesis by two catalytic centers. First, primase generates an RNA primer through three steps: initiation, consisting of dinucleotide synthesis from two nucleotide triphosphates; elongation, resulting in dinucleotide extension; and termination, owing to primase inhibition by a mature 9-mer primer. Then Polα, which works equally well on DNA:RNA and DNA:DNA double helices, intramolecularly catches the template primed by a 9mer RNA and extends the primer with dNTPs. All primosome transactions are highly coordinated by autoregulation through the alternating activation/inhibition of the catalytic centers. This coordination is mediated by the small C-terminal domain of the primase accessory subunit, which forms a tight complex with the template:primer, shuttles between the primase and DNA polymerase active sites, and determines their access to the substrate. View Full-Text
Keywords: DNA replication; human; primosome; primase; DNA polymerase α; protein-DNA interaction; RNA synthesis; initiation; termination; steric hindrance DNA replication; human; primosome; primase; DNA polymerase α; protein-DNA interaction; RNA synthesis; initiation; termination; steric hindrance
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Baranovskiy, A.G.; Tahirov, T.H. Elaborated Action of the Human Primosome. Genes 2017, 8, 62.

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