Next Article in Journal
Comparative Analysis of Cotton Small RNAs and Their Target Genes in Response to Salt Stress
Previous Article in Journal
Molecular Investigation of the Stem Snap Point in Textile Hemp
Previous Article in Special Issue
Genes and Gut Bacteria Involved in Luminal Butyrate Reduction Caused by Diet and Loperamide
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Genes 2017, 8(12), 364; doi:10.3390/genes8120364

Delivery Mode and the Transition of Pioneering Gut-Microbiota Structure, Composition and Predicted Metabolic Function

1
Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
2
Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
3
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Korea
4
Post Graduate Program Sciences in Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90040-060, Brazil
5
Post Graduate Program in Child and Adolescent Health, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90040-060, Brazil
6
Division of Translational Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 4 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetes, Obesity and the Gut Microbiome)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6185 KB, uploaded 4 December 2017]   |  

Abstract

Cesarean (C-section) delivery, recently shown to cause excess weight gain in mice, perturbs human neonatal gut microbiota development due to the lack of natural mother-to-newborn transfer of microbes. Neonates excrete first the in-utero intestinal content (referred to as meconium) hours after birth, followed by intestinal contents reflective of extra-uterine exposure (referred to as transition stool) 2 to 3 days after birth. It is not clear when the effect of C-section on the neonatal gut microbiota emerges. We examined bacterial DNA in carefully-collected meconium, and the subsequent transitional stool, from 59 neonates [13 born by scheduled C-section and 46 born by vaginal delivery] in a private hospital in Brazil. Bacterial DNA was extracted, and the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq (San Diego, CA, USA) platform. We found evidence of bacterial DNA in the majority of meconium samples in our study. The bacterial DNA structure (i.e., beta diversity) of meconium differed significantly from that of the transitional stool microbiota. There was a significant reduction in bacterial alpha diversity (e.g., number of observed bacterial species) and change in bacterial composition (e.g., reduced Proteobacteria) in the transition from meconium to stool. However, changes in predicted microbiota metabolic function from meconium to transitional stool were only observed in vaginally-delivered neonates. Within sample comparisons showed that delivery mode was significantly associated with bacterial structure, composition and predicted microbiota metabolic function in transitional-stool samples, but not in meconium samples. Specifically, compared to vaginally delivered neonates, the transitional stool of C-section delivered neonates had lower proportions of the genera Bacteroides, Parabacteroides and Clostridium. These differences led to C-section neonates having lower predicted abundance of microbial genes related to metabolism of amino and nucleotide sugars, and higher abundance of genes related to fatty-acid metabolism, amino-acid degradation and xenobiotics biodegradation. In summary, microbiota diversity was reduced in the transition from meconium to stool, and the association of delivery mode with microbiota structure, composition and predicted metabolic function was not observed until the passing of the transitional stool after meconium. View Full-Text
Keywords: cesarean section; microbiome; microbiota; microbial community; obesity cesarean section; microbiome; microbiota; microbial community; obesity
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mueller, N.T.; Shin, H.; Pizoni, A.; Werlang, I.C.; Matte, U.; Goldani, M.Z.; Goldani, H.A.S.; Dominguez-Bello, M.G. Delivery Mode and the Transition of Pioneering Gut-Microbiota Structure, Composition and Predicted Metabolic Function. Genes 2017, 8, 364.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Genes EISSN 2073-4425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top