Clavine Alkaloids Gene Clusters of Penicillium and Related Fungi: Evolutionary Combination of Prenyltransferases, Monooxygenases and Dioxygenases
AbstractThe clavine alkaloids produced by the fungi of the Aspergillaceae and Arthrodermatacea families differ from the ergot alkaloids produced by Claviceps and Neotyphodium. The clavine alkaloids lack the extensive peptide chain modifications that occur in lysergic acid derived ergot alkaloids. Both clavine and ergot alkaloids arise from the condensation of tryptophan and dimethylallylpyrophosphate by the action of the dimethylallyltryptophan synthase. The first five steps of the biosynthetic pathway that convert tryptophan and dimethylallyl-pyrophosphate (DMA-PP) in chanoclavine-1-aldehyde are common to both clavine and ergot alkaloids. The biosynthesis of ergot alkaloids has been extensively studied and is not considered in this article. We focus this review on recent advances in the gene clusters for clavine alkaloids in the species of Penicillium, Aspergillus (Neosartorya), Arthroderma and Trychophyton and the enzymes encoded by them. The final products of the clavine alkaloids pathways derive from the tetracyclic ergoline ring, which is modified by late enzymes, including a reverse type prenyltransferase, P450 monooxygenases and acetyltransferases. In Aspergillus japonicus, a α-ketoglutarate and Fe2+-dependent dioxygenase is involved in the cyclization of a festuclavine-like unknown type intermediate into cycloclavine. Related dioxygenases occur in the biosynthetic gene clusters of ergot alkaloids in Claviceps purpurea and also in the clavine clusters in Penicillium species. The final products of the clavine alkaloid pathway in these fungi differ from each other depending on the late biosynthetic enzymes involved. An important difference between clavine and ergot alkaloid pathways is that clavine producers lack the enzyme CloA, a P450 monooxygenase, involved in one of the steps of the conversion of chanoclavine-1-aldehyde into lysergic acid. Bioinformatic analysis of the sequenced genomes of the Aspergillaceae and Arthrodermataceae fungi showed the presence of clavine gene clusters in Arthroderma species, Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium commune, Penicillium camemberti, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium steckii and Penicillium griseofulvum. Analysis of the gene clusters in several clavine alkaloid producers indicates that there are gene gains, gene losses and gene rearrangements. These findings may be explained by a divergent evolution of the gene clusters of ergot and clavine alkaloids from a common ancestral progenitor six genes cluster although horizontal gene transfer of some specific genes may have occurred more recently. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Martín, J.F.; Álvarez-Álvarez, R.; Liras, P. Clavine Alkaloids Gene Clusters of Penicillium and Related Fungi: Evolutionary Combination of Prenyltransferases, Monooxygenases and Dioxygenases. Genes 2017, 8, 342.
Martín JF, Álvarez-Álvarez R, Liras P. Clavine Alkaloids Gene Clusters of Penicillium and Related Fungi: Evolutionary Combination of Prenyltransferases, Monooxygenases and Dioxygenases. Genes. 2017; 8(12):342.Chicago/Turabian Style
Martín, Juan F.; Álvarez-Álvarez, Rubén; Liras, Paloma. 2017. "Clavine Alkaloids Gene Clusters of Penicillium and Related Fungi: Evolutionary Combination of Prenyltransferases, Monooxygenases and Dioxygenases." Genes 8, no. 12: 342.