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Gene Expressions for Signal Transduction under Acidic Conditions
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675, Japan
Division of Pathology and Cell Therapy, Chiba Cancer Center Research Institute, 666-2, Nitona, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8717, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 January 2013; in revised form: 18 February 2013 / Accepted: 27 February 2013 / Published: 8 March 2013
Abstract: Although it is now well known that some diseased areas, such as cancer nests, inflammation loci, and infarction areas, are acidified, little is known about cellular signal transduction, gene expression, and cellular functions under acidic conditions. Our group showed that different signal proteins were activated under acidic conditions compared with those observed in a typical medium of around pH 7.4 that has been used until now. Investigations of gene expression under acidic conditions may be crucial to our understanding of signal transduction in acidic diseased areas. In this study, we investigated gene expression in mesothelioma cells cultured at an acidic pH using a DNA microarray technique. After 24 h culture at pH 6.7, expressions of 379 genes were increased more than twofold compared with those in cells cultured at pH 7.5. Genes encoding receptors, signal proteins including transcription factors, and cytokines including growth factors numbered 35, 32, and 17 among the 379 genes, respectively. Since the functions of 78 genes are unknown, it can be argued that cells may have other genes for signaling under acidic conditions. The expressions of 37 of the 379 genes were observed to increase after as little as 2 h. After 24 h culture at pH 6.7, expressions of 412 genes were repressed more than twofold compared with those in cells cultured at pH 7.5, and the 412 genes contained 35, 76, and 7 genes encoding receptors, signal proteins including transcription factors, and cytokines including growth factors, respectively. These results suggest that the signal pathways in acidic diseased areas are different, at least in part, from those examined with cells cultured at a pH of around 7.4.
Keywords: gene expression; acidic conditions; signal pathways; cancer cells
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MDPI and ACS Style
Fukamachi, T.; Ikeda, S.; Wang, X.; Saito, H.; Tagawa, M.; Kobayashi, H. Gene Expressions for Signal Transduction under Acidic Conditions. Genes 2013, 4, 65-85.
Fukamachi T, Ikeda S, Wang X, Saito H, Tagawa M, Kobayashi H. Gene Expressions for Signal Transduction under Acidic Conditions. Genes. 2013; 4(1):65-85.
Fukamachi, Toshihiko; Ikeda, Syunsuke; Wang, Xin; Saito, Hiromi; Tagawa, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi. 2013. "Gene Expressions for Signal Transduction under Acidic Conditions." Genes 4, no. 1: 65-85.