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Cells 2018, 7(9), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells7090114

Impact of Biomaterials on Differentiation and Reprogramming Approaches for the Generation of Functional Cardiomyocytes

1
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca Degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin, Italy
2
Division of Metrology for Quality of Life, Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Turin, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 July 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 18 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue Regeneration and Fibrosis)
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Abstract

The irreversible loss of functional cardiomyocytes (CMs) after myocardial infarction (MI) represents one major barrier to heart regeneration and functional recovery. The combination of different cell sources and different biomaterials have been investigated to generate CMs by differentiation or reprogramming approaches although at low efficiency. This critical review article discusses the role of biomaterial platforms integrating biochemical instructive cues as a tool for the effective generation of functional CMs. The report firstly introduces MI and the main cardiac regenerative medicine strategies under investigation. Then, it describes the main stem cell populations and indirect and direct reprogramming approaches for cardiac regenerative medicine. A third section discusses the main techniques for the characterization of stem cell differentiation and fibroblast reprogramming into CMs. Another section describes the main biomaterials investigated for stem cell differentiation and fibroblast reprogramming into CMs. Finally, a critical analysis of the scientific literature is presented for an efficient generation of functional CMs. The authors underline the need for biomimetic, reproducible and scalable biomaterial platforms and their integration with external physical stimuli in controlled culture microenvironments for the generation of functional CMs. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomaterials; cardiomyocytes; differentiation; myocardial infarction; reprogramming biomaterials; cardiomyocytes; differentiation; myocardial infarction; reprogramming
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Paoletti, C.; Divieto, C.; Chiono, V. Impact of Biomaterials on Differentiation and Reprogramming Approaches for the Generation of Functional Cardiomyocytes. Cells 2018, 7, 114.

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