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Cells 2018, 7(8), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells7080092

MicroRNAs and Osteoarthritis

Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatic Diseases, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Foley Medical Building, 2061 Cornell Road, Cleveland, OH 44106-5076, USA
Received: 11 July 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 29 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Matrix Remodeling)
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Abstract

An imbalance in gene expressional events skewing chondrocyte anabolic and catabolic pathways toward the latter causes an aberrant turnover and loss of extracellular matrix proteins in osteoarthritic (OA) articular cartilage. Thus, catabolism results in the elevated loss of extracellular matrix proteins. There is also evidence of an increase in the frequency of chondrocyte apoptosis that compromises the capacity of articular cartilage to undergo repair. Although much of the fundamental OA studies over the past 20 years identified and characterized many genes relevant to pro-inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)/a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif (ADAMTS), more recent studies focused on epigenetic mechanisms and the associated role of microRNAs (miRs) in regulating gene expression in OA cartilage. Thus, several miRs were identified as regulators of chondrocyte signaling pathways, apoptosis, and proteinase gene expression. For example, the reduced expression of miR-146a was found to be coupled to reduced type II collagen (COL2) in OA cartilage, whereas MMP-13 levels were increased, suggesting an association between MMP-13 gene expression and COL2A1 gene expression. Results of these studies imply that microRNAs could become useful in the search for diagnostic biomarkers, as well as providing novel therapeutic targets for intervention in OA. View Full-Text
Keywords: apoptosis; articular cartilage; autophagy; chondrocytes; extracellular matrix; microRNA apoptosis; articular cartilage; autophagy; chondrocytes; extracellular matrix; microRNA
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Malemud, C.J. MicroRNAs and Osteoarthritis. Cells 2018, 7, 92.

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