NAD+-Metabolizing Ectoenzymes in Remodeling Tumor–Host Interactions: The Human Myeloma Model
AbstractNicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an essential co-enzyme reported to operate both intra- and extracellularly. In the extracellular space, NAD+ can elicit signals by binding purinergic P2 receptors or it can serve as the substrate for a chain of ectoenzymes. As a substrate, it is converted to adenosine (ADO) and then taken up by the cells, where it is transformed and reincorporated into the intracellular nucleotide pool. Nucleotide-nucleoside conversion is regulated by membrane-bound ectoenzymes. CD38, the main mammalian enzyme that hydrolyzes NAD+, belongs to the ectoenzymatic network generating intracellular Ca2+-active metabolites. Within this general framework, the extracellular conversion of NAD+ can vary significantly according to the tissue environment or pathological conditions. Accumulating evidence suggests that tumor cells exploit such a network for migrating and homing to protected areas and, even more importantly, for evading the immune response. We report on the experience of this lab to exploit human multiple myeloma (MM), a neoplastic expansion of plasma cells, as a model to investigate these issues. MM cells express high levels of surface CD38 and grow in an environment prevalently represented by closed niches hosted in the bone marrow (BM). An original approach of this study derives from the recent use of the clinical availability of therapeutic anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in perturbing tumor viability and enzymatic functions in conditions mimicking what happens in vivo. View Full-Text
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Horenstein, A.L.; Chillemi, A.; Quarona, V.; Zito, A.; Roato, I.; Morandi, F.; Marimpietri, D.; Bolzoni, M.; Toscani, D.; Oldham, R.J.; Cuccioloni, M.; Sasser, A.K.; Pistoia, V.; Giuliani, N.; Malavasi, F. NAD+-Metabolizing Ectoenzymes in Remodeling Tumor–Host Interactions: The Human Myeloma Model. Cells 2015, 4, 520-537.
Horenstein AL, Chillemi A, Quarona V, Zito A, Roato I, Morandi F, Marimpietri D, Bolzoni M, Toscani D, Oldham RJ, Cuccioloni M, Sasser AK, Pistoia V, Giuliani N, Malavasi F. NAD+-Metabolizing Ectoenzymes in Remodeling Tumor–Host Interactions: The Human Myeloma Model. Cells. 2015; 4(3):520-537.Chicago/Turabian Style
Horenstein, Alberto L.; Chillemi, Antonella; Quarona, Valeria; Zito, Andrea; Roato, Ilaria; Morandi, Fabio; Marimpietri, Danilo; Bolzoni, Marina; Toscani, Denise; Oldham, Robert J.; Cuccioloni, Massimiliano; Sasser, A. K.; Pistoia, Vito; Giuliani, Nicola; Malavasi, Fabio. 2015. "NAD+-Metabolizing Ectoenzymes in Remodeling Tumor–Host Interactions: The Human Myeloma Model." Cells 4, no. 3: 520-537.