This article is
- freely available
Heavy Metals and Metalloids as Autophagy Inducing Agents: Focus on Cadmium and Arsenic
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari e Biomolecolari STEMBIO, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze Edificio 16, Palermo 90128, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 July 2012; in revised form: 10 August 2012 / Accepted: 14 August 2012 / Published: 27 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autophagy
Abstract: In recent years, research on the autophagic process has greatly increased, invading the fields of biology and medicine. Several markers of the autophagic process have been discovered and various strategies have been reported studying this molecular process in different biological systems in both physiological and stress conditions. Furthermore, mechanisms of metalloid- or heavy metal-induced toxicity continue to be of interest given the ubiquitous nature and distribution of these contaminants in the environment where they often play the role of pollutants of numerous organisms. The aim of this review is a critical analysis and correlation of knowledge of autophagic mechanisms studied under stress for the most common arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) compounds. In this review we report data obtained in different experimental models for each compound, highlighting similarities and/or differences in the activation of autophagic processes. A more detailed discussion will concern the activation of autophagy in Cd-exposed sea urchin embryo since it is a suitable model system that is very sensitive to environmental stress, and Cd is one of the most studied heavy metal inductors of stress and modulator of different factors such as: protein kinase and phosphatase, caspases, mitochondria, heat shock proteins, metallothioneins, transcription factors, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis and autophagy.
Keywords: autophagy; apoptosis; arsenic; cadmium; stress; sea urchin embryos
Article StatisticsClick here to load and display the download statistics.
Notes: Multiple requests from the same IP address are counted as one view.
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Chiarelli, R.; Roccheri, M.C. Heavy Metals and Metalloids as Autophagy Inducing Agents: Focus on Cadmium and Arsenic. Cells 2012, 1, 597-616.
Chiarelli R, Roccheri MC. Heavy Metals and Metalloids as Autophagy Inducing Agents: Focus on Cadmium and Arsenic. Cells. 2012; 1(3):597-616.
Chiarelli, Roberto; Roccheri, Maria Carmela. 2012. "Heavy Metals and Metalloids as Autophagy Inducing Agents: Focus on Cadmium and Arsenic." Cells 1, no. 3: 597-616.