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Agronomy 2018, 8(7), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy8070102

Early-Season Soil Waterlogging and N Fertilizer Sources Impacts on Corn N Uptake and Apparent N Recovery Efficiency

1
Delta Research and Extension Center, Mississippi State University, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA
2
Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, Novelty, MO 63460, USA
3
School of Natural Resources, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 June 2018 / Accepted: 25 June 2018 / Published: 27 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Plant Nutrients in Agronomic Crops)
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Abstract

Soil waterlogging resulting from extreme precipitation events creates anaerobic conditions that may inhibit plant growth and increase N losses. A three-year (2013–2015) field experiment was conducted in poorly-drained claypan soils to assess the effects of waterlogging [0 or 7-days waterlogging at V3 growth stage of corn (Zea mays L.)] and pre-plant application of different N fertilizer sources and post-waterlogging rescue N application (0 or 84 kg N ha−1 of urea plus urease inhibitor (NCU + UI) at V7) on chlorophyll SPAD meter (CM) readings, stomatal conductance, ear leaf and silage N concentrations, N uptake and apparent N recovery efficiency (ARE) of two corn hybrids with varying amounts of flood tolerance. Pre-plant N fertilizer sources included a non-treated control (CO), urea (NCU), urea plus nitrification inhibitor (NCU + NI) and polymer coated urea (PCU) applied at 168 kg N ha−1. In 7-days waterlogged plots, rescue N applications increased N uptake in PCU treatments 33% and 40% in 2013 and 2014, respectively, as well as in NCU by 48% in 2013. In 7-days waterlogged plots which received rescue N applications, NCU and PCU in 2013 resulted in higher N uptake than CO and NCU + NI by 47 to 77 kg ha−1. PCU had higher N uptake than NCU and NCU + NI by 78 and 72 kg ha−1 in 7-days waterlogged plots that received rescue N applications in 2014. Corn hybrid showed no differences in N uptake and ARE in our study. Our results indicate combining pre-plant N fertilizer source selection and rescue N applications may be a strategy to reduce possible decreases in corn N uptake caused by early season soil waterlogging in average rainfall years. View Full-Text
Keywords: urease inhibitor; NBPT; nitrification inhibitor; Instinct; silage N concentration; ear leaf N; stomatal conductance; chlorophyll meter readings urease inhibitor; NBPT; nitrification inhibitor; Instinct; silage N concentration; ear leaf N; stomatal conductance; chlorophyll meter readings
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Kaur, G.; Nelson, K.A.; Motavalli, P.P. Early-Season Soil Waterlogging and N Fertilizer Sources Impacts on Corn N Uptake and Apparent N Recovery Efficiency. Agronomy 2018, 8, 102.

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