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Agronomy 2018, 8(6), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy8060095

Genetic Diversity of Clinal Freezing Tolerance Variation in Winter Wheat Landraces

1
Department of Plant Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
2
Crop Improvement and Protection Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Salinas, CA 93905, USA
3
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
4
Wheat Health, Genetics, and Quality Research Unit, USDA-ARS and Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping for Crop Plants)
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Abstract

Wheat (Triticumaestivum L.) is a major cereal crop grown across a wide range of environments, but its productivity around the world is challenged by various biotic and abiotic factors. Wheat landraces from around the world are a source of unexploited genetic diversity that can be essential for modern wheat-breeding programs in search of resistance to abiotic stresses like freezing tolerance. This genetic diversity study of 553 winter wheat landraces based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealed separate clusters of landraces related to the latitude of origin. Linkage block analysis revealed genomic regions with specific alleles skewed towards landraces from higher latitudes, suggesting that migration to higher latitudes resulted in the fixing of specific alleles. Electrolyte leakage was used to measure the tolerance of freezing to −14 °C, −16 °C, and −18 °C of 192 landraces. There was a significant negative correlation between latitude and electrolyte leakage, with an R2 value of 0.14, (p < 0.0001), in a regression analysis indicating greater freezing tolerance in landraces from higher latitudes. Genome-wide association studies identified regions in chromosomes 4A and 6A associated with higher latitudes and freezing tolerance, respectively. Landraces with freezing tolerance may be useful in developing new germplasm as novel sources of greater cold hardiness. View Full-Text
Keywords: Triticum aestivum; landraces; freezing tolerance; electrolyte leakage; genome-wide association studies Triticum aestivum; landraces; freezing tolerance; electrolyte leakage; genome-wide association studies
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Sthapit Kandel, J.; Huang, M.; Zhang, Z.; Skinner, D.Z.; See, D.R. Genetic Diversity of Clinal Freezing Tolerance Variation in Winter Wheat Landraces. Agronomy 2018, 8, 95.

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