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Agronomy 2018, 8(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy8010001

Soil Factors Effects on the Mineralization, Extractable Residue, and Bound Residue Formation of Aminocyclopyrachlor in Three Tropical Soils

1
Center of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP 13400-970, Brazil
2
Department of Agronomy, University of Mato Grosso State, Alta Floresta, MT 78580-000, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 October 2017 / Revised: 23 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
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Abstract

Aminocyclopyrachlor is an herbicide that belongs to the new class of chemicals known as the pyrimidine carboxylic acids, which are used to control broadleaf weeds and brush. However, the environmental behavior and fate of aminocyclopyrachlor are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was thus to evaluate the mineralization, extractable residue and bound residue formation of aminocyclopyrachlor in three tropical soils with different physico-chemical properties. 14C-labeled [pyrimidine-2-14C] aminocyclopyrachlor was used to assess the fate of this herbicide in soil placed in biometer culture flasks. Total mineralization (accumulated 14CO2) of aminocyclopyrachlor was found to be <10% in all soils, decreasing in the following order: Oxisol—Typic Hapludox (clay) > Oxisol—Typic Hapludox (loamy sand) > Plinthosol—Petric (sandy clay). Overall, constant rate of mineralization (k) values for all soils were very low (0.00050% to 0.00079% 14CO2 day−1), with mineralization half-life times (MT50) consequently very high (877 to 1376 days), suggesting potential long persistence in soil. The amount of extractable residues decreased from ~31% to 50% in all soils after 126 days of incubation, indicating an increase in bound residue formation from ~5.0- to 7.5-fold compared to evaluation immediately after herbicide application, suggesting that degradation herbicide is involved in the formation of bound residues. Extractable residues are important factors that control mineralization and bound residue formation from aminocyclopyrachlor in the soil. The present study is the first to assess the fate, distribution, and formation of bound residues of aminocyclopyrachlor in soils. Aminocyclopyrachlor residues were predominantly associated with the OM and clay contents of soil. This effect of soil physico-chemical properties should be considered in environmental risk assessment of aminocyclopyrachlor and its application in the field for weed control. View Full-Text
Keywords: fate characterization; herbicide; non-extractable residues; soil texture fate characterization; herbicide; non-extractable residues; soil texture
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Francisco, J.G.; Mendes, K.F.; Pimpinato, R.F.; Tornisielo, V.L.; Guimarães, A.C.D. Soil Factors Effects on the Mineralization, Extractable Residue, and Bound Residue Formation of Aminocyclopyrachlor in Three Tropical Soils. Agronomy 2018, 8, 1.

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