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Agronomy 2017, 7(1), 17; doi:10.3390/agronomy7010017

Molecular Regulation of Flowering Time in Grasses

1
Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Kita 10 Nishi 5, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810, Japan
2
Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: John W. Forster and Kevin F. Smith
Received: 29 November 2016 / Revised: 11 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
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Abstract

Flowering time is a key target trait for extending the vegetative phase to increase biomass in bioenergy crops such as perennial C4 grasses. Molecular genetic studies allow the identification of genes involved in the control of flowering in different species. Some regulatory factors of the Arabidopsis pathway are conserved in other plant species such as grasses. However, differences in the function of particular genes confer specific responses to flowering. One of the major pathways is photoperiod regulation, based on the interaction of the circadian clock and environmental light signals. Depending on their requirements for day-length plants can be classified as long-day (LD), short-day (SD), and day-neutral. The CONSTANS (CO) and Heading Date 1 (Hd1), orthologos genes, are central regulators in the flowering of Arabidopsis and rice, LD and SD plants, respectively. Additionally, Early heading date 1 (Ehd1) induces the expression of Heading date 3a (Hd3a), conferring SD promotion and controls Rice Flowering Locus T 1 (RFT1) in LD conditions, independently of Hd1. Nevertheless, the mechanisms promoting flowering in perennial bioenergy crops are poorly understood. Recent progress on the regulatory network of important gramineous crops and components involved in flowering control will be discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: flowering; Arabidopsis; grasses; photoperiod; circadian clock flowering; Arabidopsis; grasses; photoperiod; circadian clock
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Nuñez, F.D.B.; Yamada, T. Molecular Regulation of Flowering Time in Grasses. Agronomy 2017, 7, 17.

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