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Agronomy 2016, 6(1), 8; doi:10.3390/agronomy6010008

Agro-Morphological Evaluation of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) for Seasonal Adaptation in the Sahelian Environment

1
Laboratoire de Biotechnologies Végétales, Département de Biologie Végétale, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, BP 5005 Dakar-Fann, Dakar 107000, Senegal
2
ArficaRice Station Sahel, Ndiaye, B.P. 96, Saint Louis, Code Postal 32000, Senegal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 October 2015 / Revised: 5 January 2016 / Accepted: 15 January 2016 / Published: 12 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Agronomy with Impact for Food Security)
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Abstract

In the Sahel zone of West Africa that extends from Senegal to Chad, temperatures can vary from less than 15 °C to 25 °C from November to February. These low temperatures affect the growth, development and yield of rice plants, and therefore constitute a major constraint to rice production in the Sahel. In order to identify rice varieties tolerant to cold stress at different developmental stages, a diverse set of 224 rice germplasm was evaluated for yield and yield-related traits in Ndiaye, Senegal, using three different sowing dates. The first sowing date (October 2010), was chosen so as to expose the rice plants to cold stress at the reproductive stage while the rice crop planted at the second sowing date (January 2011) experienced cold stress at the vegetative stage. The third sowing date (July 2011) was the normal planting date for irrigated rice in the Sahel and it served as the control date when the crop does not experience any cold stress throughout its growth cycle. Among the data collected, significant genetic variation was detected and genotype-by-environment interaction was also significant for the traits. At the vegetative stage, cold stress reduced tillering and plant vigor and delayed flowering but increased yield, whereas at the reproductive stage, aside from delaying flowering, cold stress also inhibited panicle exsertion and reduced panicle length, spikelet fertility, grain filling and strongly reduced yields. Principal Component Analysis and correlation analysis using agro-morphological traits helped to identify genotypes that were tolerant to cold stress at either the vegetative or the reproductive stage and the traits associated with high yield under cold stress at each of these stages. Our results can be used to develop cold tolerant rice varieties adapted to double cropping in the Sahelian zone of West Africa. View Full-Text
Keywords: Oryza sativa; rice; Sahelian environment; low temperature; cold season; agro-morphological characters Oryza sativa; rice; Sahelian environment; low temperature; cold season; agro-morphological characters
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ndour, D.; Diouf, D.; Bimpong, I.K.; Sow, A.; Kanfany, G.; Manneh, B. Agro-Morphological Evaluation of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) for Seasonal Adaptation in the Sahelian Environment. Agronomy 2016, 6, 8.

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