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Agronomy 2014, 4(4), 497-513; doi:10.3390/agronomy4040497

Nitrogen Fertilizer Sources and Application Timing Affects Wheat and Inter-Seeded Red Clover Yields on Claypan Soils

1
Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, Novelty, MO 63460, USA
2
Department of Soil, Environmental and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
3
Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 October 2014 / Revised: 21 October 2014 / Accepted: 31 October 2014 / Published: 11 November 2014
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Abstract

Controlled-release N fertilizer, such as polymer-coated urea (PCU), may be a fall N management option for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in poorly-drained claypan soils. Field research evaluated (1) urea release from fall-applied PCU in 2006 and 2007; (2) broadcast fall-spring split (25%:75%) of N sources; and (3) a single fall (100%) application of PCU, urea, urea plus NBPT (N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide] (U + NBPT), ammonium nitrate (AN), or urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) at 0, 56, 84, and 112 kg·N·ha−1 on wheat yield, wheat biomass, N uptake by wheat, and frost-seeded red clover (FSC) (Trifolium pratense L.) forage yield (2004–2007). PCU applied in fall released less than 30% urea by February. Urea released from PCU by harvest was 60% and 85% in 2006 and 2007, respectively. In poorly-drained soils, wheat yields ranked PCU > AN > U + NBPT > urea ≥ UAN over the rates evaluated for fall-only application. PCU was a viable fall-applied N source, with yields similar to or greater than urea or U + NBPT split-applied. Split-N applications of AN, urea, UAN, and U + NBPT generally resulted in greater wheat yields than a fall application. Enhanced efficiency fertilizers provide farmers with flexible options for maintaining high yielding production systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: ammonium nitrate; cover crop; enhanced efficiency fertilizer; nitrogen; urea; urease inhibitor ammonium nitrate; cover crop; enhanced efficiency fertilizer; nitrogen; urea; urease inhibitor
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nelson, K.A.; Motavalli, P.P.; Nathan, M. Nitrogen Fertilizer Sources and Application Timing Affects Wheat and Inter-Seeded Red Clover Yields on Claypan Soils. Agronomy 2014, 4, 497-513.

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