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Polymers 2017, 9(5), 182; doi:10.3390/polym9050182

Osteochondral Regeneration Induced by TGF-β Loaded Photo Cross-Linked Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogel Infiltrated in Fused Deposition-Manufactured Composite Scaffold of Hydroxyapatite and Poly (Ethylene Glycol)-Block-Poly(ε-Caprolactone)

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200 Chung Pei Road, Chung-Li District, Taoyuan City 320, Taiwan
Department of Orthopedics, Min-Sheng General Hospital, 168, ChingKuo Rd, Taoyuan 330, Taiwan
Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Formosa University, Yunlin County 632, Taiwan
Department of Orthopedics, Taoyuan Armed Forces General Hospital, No. 168, Zhongxing Road, Longtan District, Taoyuan City 325, Taiwan
Department of Orthopedics, Hualien Tzu Chi General Hospital, No. 707, Sec. 3, Chung Yang Rd, Hualien 970, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Insung S. Choi
Received: 6 March 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 14 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3268 KB, uploaded 20 May 2017]   |  


The aim of this study was to report the fabrication of porous scaffolds with pre-designed internal pores using a fused deposition modeling (FDM) method. Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a suitable material for the FDM method due to the fact it can be melted and has adequate flexural modulus and strength to be formed into a filament. In our study, the filaments of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) having terminal groups of carboxylic acid were deposited layer by layer. Raw materials having a weight ratio of hydroxyapatite (HAp) to polymer of 1:2 was used for FDM. To promote cell adhesion, amino groups of the Arg-Gly-Asp(RGD) peptide were condensed with the carboxylic groups on the surface of the fabricated scaffold. Then the scaffold was infiltrated with hydrogel of glycidyl methacrylate hyaluronic acid loading with 10 ng/mL of TGF-β1 and photo cross-linked on the top of the scaffolds. Serious tests of mechanical and biological properties were performed in vitro. HAp was found to significantly increase the compressive strength of the porous scaffolds. Among three orientations of the filaments, the lay down pattern 0°/90° scaffolds exhibited the highest compressive strength. Fluorescent staining of the cytoskeleton found that the osteoblast-like cells and stem cells well spread on RGD-modified PEG-PCL film indicating a favorable surface for the proliferation of cells. An in vivo test was performed on rabbit knee. The histological sections indicated that the bone and cartilage defects produced in the knees were fully healed 12 weeks after the implantation of the TGF-β1 loaded hydrogel and scaffolds, and regenerated cartilage was hyaline cartilage as indicated by alcian blue and periodic acid-schiff double staining. View Full-Text
Keywords: poly(ε-caprolactone); osteoarthritis; cartilage; scaffold; hydrogel; fused deposition manufacturing poly(ε-caprolactone); osteoarthritis; cartilage; scaffold; hydrogel; fused deposition manufacturing

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Hsieh, Y.-H.; Hsieh, M.-F.; Fang, C.-H.; Jiang, C.-P.; Lin, B.; Lee, H.-M. Osteochondral Regeneration Induced by TGF-β Loaded Photo Cross-Linked Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogel Infiltrated in Fused Deposition-Manufactured Composite Scaffold of Hydroxyapatite and Poly (Ethylene Glycol)-Block-Poly(ε-Caprolactone). Polymers 2017, 9, 182.

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