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Polymers 2017, 9(11), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110570

Effect of Laccase-Mediated Biopolymer Grafting on Kraft Pulp Fibers for Enhancing Paper’s Mechanical Properties

1
Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Circuito Universitario s/n, Campus Universitario No. 2, C.P. Chihuahua 31125, Chih., Mexico
2
Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, Chihuahua 31109, Chih., Mexico
3
Grupo COPAMEX, Ave. de la Juventud No. 280, San Nicolás de los Garza 66450, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 September 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 28 October 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
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Abstract

High-resistance paper was manufactured by laccase-grafting of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and chitosan (CPX) on Kraft pulp fiber. The reaction was mediated in the presence of laccase by one of the following polyphenols in the presence of air: gallic acid (GA), vanillic acid (VA) and catechol (1,2–DHB). Enzyme was added at constant loading (24 kg ton−1), 1% pulp consistency, 0.005% CMC, pH = 6.3 ± 0.5 and 2 mM of mediator. CPX content was assessed at two levels (0% and 0.005%). Treated pulps were analyzed by different mechanical tests (ring crush, mullen, corrugating medium test (CMT) flat crush of corrugating medium test and tension). An improvement in these parameters was obtained by biopolymer coupling and selected mediator. When using GA, three parameters increased more than 40%, while ring crush increased 120%. For the case of VA, properties were enhanced from 74% to 88% when CPX was added. For 1,2–DHB, there was not found a statistically significant difference between the results in the presence of CPX. Scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, FTIR and 13C NMR were used in all papers in order to evaluate grafting. Hence, it was possible to correlate polymerization with an improvement of paper’s mechanical properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: paper; biografting; cellulose; polyphenols; laccase paper; biografting; cellulose; polyphenols; laccase
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ballinas-Casarrubias, L.; Villanueva-Solís, L.; Espinoza-Hicks, C.; Camacho-Dávila, A.; Castillo, H.A.P.; Pérez, S.B.; Villa, E.D.; Hernández, M.D.D.; González-Sánchez, G. Effect of Laccase-Mediated Biopolymer Grafting on Kraft Pulp Fibers for Enhancing Paper’s Mechanical Properties. Polymers 2017, 9, 570.

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