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Polymers 2017, 9(10), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9100517

Interactions of Biocidal Polyhexamethylene Guanidine Hydrochloride and Its Analogs with POPC Model Membranes

1
Key Lab of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, College of Animal Sciences & Technology, Huazhong Agriculture University, 1 Shizishan Street, Wuhan 430070, China
2
The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Huazhong Agriculture University, 1 Shizishan Street, Wuhan 430070, China
3
College of Sciences, Huazhong Agriculture University, 1 Shizishan Street, Wuhan 430070, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 5 October 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
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Abstract

The bacterial membrane-targeted polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHGH) and its novel analog polyoctamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (POGH) had excellent antimicrobial activities against antibiotics-resistant bacteria. However, the biocompatibility aspects of PHGH and POGH on the phospholipid membrane of the eukaryotic cell have not yet been considered. Four chemically synthesized cationic oligoguanidine polymers containing alkyl group with different carbon chain lengths, including PHGH, POGH, and their two analogs, were used to determine their interactions with zwitterionic 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) phospholipids vesicles mimicking the eukaryotic cell membrane. Characterization was conducted by using bactericidal dynamics, hemolysis testing, calcein dye leakage, and isothermal titration calorimetry. Results showed that the gradually lengthened alkyl carbon chain of four oligoguanidine polymers increased the biocidal activity of the polymer, accompanied with the increased hemolytic activity, calcein dye leakage rate and the increased absolute value of the exothermic effect of polymer-POPC membrane interaction. The thermodynamic curve of the polymer-POPC membrane interaction exhibited a very weak exothermic effect and a poorly unsaturated titration curve, which indicated that four guanidine polymers had weak affinity for zwitterionic POPC vesicles. Generally, PHGH of four guanidine polymers had high biocidal activity and relatively high biocompatibility. This study emphasized that appropriate amphiphilicity balanced by the alkyl chain length, and the positive charge is important factor for the biocompatibility of cationic antimicrobial guanidine polymer. Both PHGH and POGH exhibited destructive power to phospholipid membrane of eukaryotic cell, which should be considered in their industry applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride; membrane; POPC; hemolytic activity; dye leakage polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride; membrane; POPC; hemolytic activity; dye leakage
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Luo, X.; Jiang, Z.; Zhang, N.; Yang, Z.; Zhou, Z. Interactions of Biocidal Polyhexamethylene Guanidine Hydrochloride and Its Analogs with POPC Model Membranes. Polymers 2017, 9, 517.

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