Quantitative Phase Fraction Detection in Organic Photovoltaic Materials through EELS Imaging
AbstractOrganic photovoltaic materials have recently seen intense interest from the research community. Improvements in device performance are occurring at an impressive rate; however, visualization of the active layer phase separation still remains a challenge. This paper outlines the application of two electron energy-loss spectroscopic (EELS) imaging techniques that can complement and enhance current phase detection techniques. Specifically, the bulk plasmon peak position, often used to produce contrast between phases in energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), is quantitatively mapped across a sample cross section. A complementary spectrum image capturing the carbon and sulfur core loss edges is compared with the plasmon peak map and found to agree quite well, indicating that carbon and sulfur density differences between the two phases also allows phase discrimination. Additionally, an analytical technique for determining absolute atomic areal density is used to produce an absolute carbon and sulfur areal density map. We show how these maps may be re-interpreted as a phase ratio map, giving quantitative information about the purity of the phases within the junction. View Full-Text
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Dyck, O.; Hu, S.; Das, S.; Keum, J.; Xiao, K.; Khomami, B.; Duscher, G. Quantitative Phase Fraction Detection in Organic Photovoltaic Materials through EELS Imaging. Polymers 2015, 7, 2446-2460.
Dyck O, Hu S, Das S, Keum J, Xiao K, Khomami B, Duscher G. Quantitative Phase Fraction Detection in Organic Photovoltaic Materials through EELS Imaging. Polymers. 2015; 7(11):2446-2460.Chicago/Turabian Style
Dyck, Ondrej; Hu, Sheng; Das, Sanjib; Keum, Jong; Xiao, Kai; Khomami, Bamin; Duscher, Gerd. 2015. "Quantitative Phase Fraction Detection in Organic Photovoltaic Materials through EELS Imaging." Polymers 7, no. 11: 2446-2460.