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Polymers 2015, 7(11), 2446-2460; doi:10.3390/polym7111523

Quantitative Phase Fraction Detection in Organic Photovoltaic Materials through EELS Imaging

1
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
2
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
3
Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences/Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA
4
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Christian Nielsen and Laure Biniek
Received: 24 August 2015 / Revised: 30 October 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Photovoltaics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5575 KB, uploaded 24 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

Organic photovoltaic materials have recently seen intense interest from the research community. Improvements in device performance are occurring at an impressive rate; however, visualization of the active layer phase separation still remains a challenge. This paper outlines the application of two electron energy-loss spectroscopic (EELS) imaging techniques that can complement and enhance current phase detection techniques. Specifically, the bulk plasmon peak position, often used to produce contrast between phases in energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), is quantitatively mapped across a sample cross section. A complementary spectrum image capturing the carbon and sulfur core loss edges is compared with the plasmon peak map and found to agree quite well, indicating that carbon and sulfur density differences between the two phases also allows phase discrimination. Additionally, an analytical technique for determining absolute atomic areal density is used to produce an absolute carbon and sulfur areal density map. We show how these maps may be re-interpreted as a phase ratio map, giving quantitative information about the purity of the phases within the junction. View Full-Text
Keywords: phase detection; organic photovoltaics; plasmon energy mapping; electron energy loss spectroscopy; EELS Core-loss mapping; EFTEM phase detection; organic photovoltaics; plasmon energy mapping; electron energy loss spectroscopy; EELS Core-loss mapping; EFTEM
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dyck, O.; Hu, S.; Das, S.; Keum, J.; Xiao, K.; Khomami, B.; Duscher, G. Quantitative Phase Fraction Detection in Organic Photovoltaic Materials through EELS Imaging. Polymers 2015, 7, 2446-2460.

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