Polymers 2014, 6(3), 686-705; doi:10.3390/polym6030686
Article

All Green Composites from Fully Renewable Biopolymers: Chitosan-Starch Reinforced with Keratin from Feathers

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Received: 30 January 2014; in revised form: 1 March 2014 / Accepted: 4 March 2014 / Published: 11 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polymers 2014)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The performance as reinforcement of a fibrillar protein such as feather keratin fiber over a biopolymeric matrix composed of polysaccharides was evaluated in this paper. Three different kinds of keratin reinforcement were used: short and long biofibers and rachis particles. These were added separately at 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt% to the chitosan-starch matrix and the composites were processed by a casting/solvent evaporation method. The morphological characteristics, mechanical and thermal properties of the matrix and composites were studied by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis. The thermal results indicated that the addition of keratin enhanced the thermal stability of the composites compared to pure matrix. This was corroborated with dynamic mechanical analysis as the results revealed that the storage modulus of the composites increased with respect to the pure matrix. The morphology, evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, indicated a uniform dispersion of keratin in the chitosan-starch matrix as a result of good compatibility between these biopolymers, also corroborated by FTIR. These results demonstrate that chicken feathers can be useful to obtain novel keratin reinforcements and develop new green composites providing better properties, than the original biopolymer matrix.
Keywords: keratin; chicken feather; biofibers; chitosan; starch; biopolymer composite
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MDPI and ACS Style

Flores-Hernández, C.G.; Colín-Cruz, A.; Velasco-Santos, C.; Castaño, V.M.; Rivera-Armenta, J.L.; Almendarez-Camarillo, A.; García-Casillas, P.E.; Martínez-Hernández, A.L. All Green Composites from Fully Renewable Biopolymers: Chitosan-Starch Reinforced with Keratin from Feathers. Polymers 2014, 6, 686-705.

AMA Style

Flores-Hernández CG, Colín-Cruz A, Velasco-Santos C, Castaño VM, Rivera-Armenta JL, Almendarez-Camarillo A, García-Casillas PE, Martínez-Hernández AL. All Green Composites from Fully Renewable Biopolymers: Chitosan-Starch Reinforced with Keratin from Feathers. Polymers. 2014; 6(3):686-705.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Flores-Hernández, Cynthia G.; Colín-Cruz, Arturo; Velasco-Santos, Carlos; Castaño, Víctor M.; Rivera-Armenta, José L.; Almendarez-Camarillo, Armando; García-Casillas, Perla E.; Martínez-Hernández, Ana L. 2014. "All Green Composites from Fully Renewable Biopolymers: Chitosan-Starch Reinforced with Keratin from Feathers." Polymers 6, no. 3: 686-705.

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