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Polymers 2018, 10(9), 938; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10090938

Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Green Cationic Polyfluorene and Its Potential Use as a Fluorescent Membrane Probe

1
Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernández, 03202 Elche, Spain
2
Living Systems Institute, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QD, UK
3
Departamento de Química Inorgánca, Orgánica y Bioqímica, Universidad de Castilla la Mancha, 13071 Cuidad Real, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
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Abstract

In the present work, we have synthesized a novel green-emitter conjugated polyelectrolyte Copoly-{[9,9-bis(6′-N,N,N-trimethylammonium)hexyl]-2,7-(fluorene)-alt-4,7-(2-(phenyl) benzo[d] [1,2,3] triazole)} bromide (HTMA-PFBT) by microwave-assisted Suzuki coupling reaction. Its fluorescent properties have been studied in aqueous media and in presence of model membranes of different composition, in order to explore its ability to be used as a green fluorescent membrane probe. The polyelectrolyte was bound with high affinity to the membrane surface, where it exhibited high fluorescence efficiency and stability. HTMA-PFBT showed lower affinity to zwitterionic membranes as compared to anionic ones, as well as a more external location, near the membrane-aqueous interface. Fluorescence microscopy studies confirmed the interaction of HTMA-PFBT with the model membranes, labelling the lipid bilayer without perturbing its morphology and showing a clear preference towards anionic systems. In addition, the polyelectrolyte was able to label the membrane of bacteria and living mammalian cells, separately. Finally, we explored if the polyelectrolyte can function also as a sensitive probe able of detecting lipid-phase transitions. All these results suggest the potential use of HTMA-PFBT as a green membrane marker for bioimaging and selective recognition of bacteria cell over mammalian ones and as a tool to monitor changes in physical state of lipid membranes. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyfluorene; conjugated polyelectrolyte; bioimaging; fluorescent membrane probe; bioimaging polyfluorene; conjugated polyelectrolyte; bioimaging; fluorescent membrane probe; bioimaging
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Vázquez-Guilló, R.; Martínez-Tomé, M.J.; Kahveci, Z.; Torres, I.; Falco, A.; Mallavia, R.; Mateo, C.R. Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Green Cationic Polyfluorene and Its Potential Use as a Fluorescent Membrane Probe. Polymers 2018, 10, 938.

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