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Polymers 2018, 10(6), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060625

Highly Efficient Flame Retardant Hybrid Composites Based on Calcium Alginate/Nano-Calcium Borate

1,†
,
2,†
,
1
,
1
and
1,*
1
College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China
2
College of Life Sciences, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China;
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 May 2018 / Revised: 29 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
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Abstract

Hybrid composites with low flammability based on renewable calcium alginate and nano-calcium borate were fabricated using an in situ method through a simple, eco-friendly vacuum drying process. The composites were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The combustion behavior and flammability of the composites were assessed by using the limiting oxygen index (LOI) and cone calorimetry (CONE) tests. The composites showed excellent thermal stability and achieved nonflammability with an LOI higher than 60. Pyrolysis was investigated using pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) and the results showed that fewer sorts of cracking products were produced from the hybrid composites compared with the calcium alginate. A possible thermal degradation mechanism of composites was proposed based on the experimental data. The combined results indicate that the calcium borate had a nano-effect, accumulating more freely in the hybrid composites and contributing significantly to both the solid phase and gas phase, resulting in an efficient improvement in the flame retardancy of the composites. Our study provides a novel material with promising potentiality for flame retardant applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium alginate; nano-calcium borate; flame retardancy; pyrolysis; thermal degradation calcium alginate; nano-calcium borate; flame retardancy; pyrolysis; thermal degradation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Liu, Z.; Li, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhang, L.; Li, Q. Highly Efficient Flame Retardant Hybrid Composites Based on Calcium Alginate/Nano-Calcium Borate. Polymers 2018, 10, 625.

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