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Polymers 2018, 10(6), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060583

Soy-Based Soft Matrices for Encapsulation and Delivery of Hydrophilic Compounds

1
Department of Coatings and Polymeric Materials, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108, USA
2
Office for Research and Creative Activity, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108, USA
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 April 2018 / Revised: 22 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 May 2018 / Published: 26 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers for Therapy and Diagnostics)
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Abstract

A new controlled-release platform for hydrophilic compounds has been developed, utilizing citric acid-cured epoxidized sucrose soyate (ESS) as the matrix forming material. By cross-linking epoxy groups of ESS with citric acid in the presence of a hydrophilic model molecule, sodium salt of fluorescein (Sod-FS), we were able to entrap the latter homogenously within the ESS matrix. No chemical change of the entrapped active agent was evident during the fabrication process. Hydrophobicity of the matrix was found to be the rate-limiting factor for sustaining the release of the hydrophilic model compound, while inclusion of release-modifiers such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) within the matrix system modulated the rate and extent of guest release. Using 5 kDa PEG at 5% w/w of the total formulation, it was possible to extend the release of the active ingredient for more than a month. In addition, the amount of modifiers in formulations also influenced the mechanical properties of the matrices, including loss and storage modulus. Mechanism of active release from ESS matrices was also evaluated using established kinetic models. Formulations composed entirely of ESS showed a non-Fickian (anomalous) release behavior while Fickian (Case I) transport was the predominant mechanism of active release from ESS systems containing different amount of PEGs. The mean dissolution time (MDT) of the hydrophilic guest molecule from within the ESS matrix was found to be a function of the molecular weight and the amount of PEG included. At the molecular level, we observed no cellular toxicities associated with ESS up to a concentration level of 10 μM. We envision that such fully bio-based matrices can find applications in compounding point-of-care, extended-release formulations of highly water-soluble active agents. View Full-Text
Keywords: drug delivery systems; controlled release; lipid matrices; epoxidized sucrose soyate drug delivery systems; controlled release; lipid matrices; epoxidized sucrose soyate
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Chitemere, R.; Stafslien, S.; Jiang, L.; Webster, D.; Quadir, M. Soy-Based Soft Matrices for Encapsulation and Delivery of Hydrophilic Compounds. Polymers 2018, 10, 583.

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