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Polymers 2018, 10(5), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10050521

Polyhexamethylene Biguanide and Nadifloxacin Self-Assembled Nanoparticles: Antimicrobial Effects against Intracellular Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

1
Department of Pathobiology and Population Science, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Royal College Street, London NW1 0TU, UK
2
Present address: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Locked Bag 36, Pengkalan Chepa, 16100 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia
3
University College London School of Pharmacy, 29-39 Brunswick Square, Bloomsbury, London WC1N 1AX, UK
4
UCL Centre for Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine, Division of Surgery & Interventional Science, University College London, London NW3 2PF, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 March 2018 / Revised: 29 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 12 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers)
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Abstract

The treatment of skin and soft tissue infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains a challenge, partly due to localization of the bacteria inside the host’s cells, where antimicrobial penetration and efficacy is limited. We formulated the cationic polymer polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) with the topical antibiotic nadifloxacin and tested the activities against intracellular MRSA in infected keratinocytes. The PHMB/nadifloxacin nanoparticles displayed a size of 291.3 ± 89.6 nm, polydispersity index of 0.35 ± 0.04, zeta potential of +20.2 ± 4.8 mV, and drug encapsulation efficiency of 58.25 ± 3.4%. The nanoparticles killed intracellular MRSA, and relative to free polymer or drugs used separately or together, the nanoparticles displayed reduced toxicity and improved host cell recovery. Together, these findings show that PHMB/nadifloxacin nanoparticles are effective against intracellular bacteria and could be further developed for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: skin and soft tissue infections; polyhexamethylene biguanide; nadifloxacin; nanoparticles; intracellular MRSA skin and soft tissue infections; polyhexamethylene biguanide; nadifloxacin; nanoparticles; intracellular MRSA
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Kamaruzzaman, N.F.; Pina, M.F.; Chivu, A.; Good, L. Polyhexamethylene Biguanide and Nadifloxacin Self-Assembled Nanoparticles: Antimicrobial Effects against Intracellular Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Polymers 2018, 10, 521.

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