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Polymers 2018, 10(2), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10020211

α-Cyclodextrin and α-Cyclodextrin Polymers as Oxygen Nanocarriers to Limit Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Injury: Implications from an In Vitro Model

1
Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, 10043 Orbassano, Italy
2
Department of Drug Science and Technology, University of Turin, 10125 Turin, Italy
3
Department of Chemistry, University of Turin, 10125 Turin, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 16 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Guest Polymer Complexes)
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Abstract

The incidence of heart failure (HF) is increasing worldwide and myocardial infarction (MI), which follows ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), is often at the basis of HF development. Nanocarriers are interesting particles for their potential application in cardiovascular disease. Impaired drug delivery in ischemic disease is challenging. Cyclodextrin nanosponges (NS) can be considered innovative tools for improving oxygen delivery in a controlled manner. This study has developed new α-cyclodextrin-based formulations as oxygen nanocarriers such as native α-cyclodextrin (α-CD), branched α-cyclodextrin polymer (α-CD POLY), and α-cyclodextrin nanosponges (α-CD NS). The three different α-CD-based formulations were tested at 0.2, 2, and 20 µg/mL to ascertain their capability to reduce cell mortality during hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R) in vitro protocols. H9c2, a cardiomyoblast cell line, was exposed to normoxia (20% oxygen) or hypoxia (5% CO2 and 95% N2). The different formulations, applied before hypoxia, induced a significant reduction in cell mortality (in a range of 15% to 30%) when compared to samples devoid of oxygen. Moreover, their application at the beginning of reoxygenation induced a considerable reduction in cell death (12% to 20%). α-CD NS showed a marked efficacy in controlled oxygenation, which suggests an interesting potential for future medical application of polymer systems for MI treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: α-cyclodextrin; α-cyclodextrin nanosponges; α-cyclodextrin polymers; oxygen delivery; myocardial infarction; ischemia; reperfusion α-cyclodextrin; α-cyclodextrin nanosponges; α-cyclodextrin polymers; oxygen delivery; myocardial infarction; ischemia; reperfusion
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Femminò, S.; Penna, C.; Bessone, F.; Caldera, F.; Dhakar, N.; Cau, D.; Pagliaro, P.; Cavalli, R.; Trotta, F. α-Cyclodextrin and α-Cyclodextrin Polymers as Oxygen Nanocarriers to Limit Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Injury: Implications from an In Vitro Model. Polymers 2018, 10, 211.

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