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Crystals 2018, 8(2), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst8020105

Mechanically Robust 3D Graphene–Hydroxyapatite Hybrid Bioscaffolds with Enhanced Osteoconductive and Biocompatible Performance

1
Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou 730000, China
2
College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
3
Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China (Lanzhou University), The Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou 730000, China
4
School of Stomatology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
5
Laboratory of Clean Energy Chemistry and Materials, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 21 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene Mechanics)
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Abstract

In this paper, we describe three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical graphene–hydroxyapatite hybrid bioscaffolds (GHBs) with a calcium phosphate salt electrochemically deposited onto the framework of graphene foam (GF). The morphology of the hydroxyapatite (HA) coverage over GF was controlled by the deposition conditions, including temperature and voltage. The HA obtained at the higher temperature demonstrates the more uniformly distributed crystal grain with the smaller size. The as-prepared GHBs show a high elasticity with recoverable compressive strain up to 80%, and significantly enhanced strength with Young’s modulus up to 0.933 MPa compared with that of pure GF template (~7.5 kPa). Moreover, co-culture with MC3T3-E1 cells reveals that the GHBs can more effectively promote the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts with good biocompatibility than pure GF and the control group. The superior performance of GHBs suggests their promising applications as multifunctional materials for the repair and regeneration of bone defects. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene–hydroxyapatite hybrid bioscaffolds; graphene foam; electrochemical deposition; mechanical robustness; biocompatibility graphene–hydroxyapatite hybrid bioscaffolds; graphene foam; electrochemical deposition; mechanical robustness; biocompatibility
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Xie, W.; Song, F.; Wang, R.; Sun, S.; Li, M.; Fan, Z.; Liu, B.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, J. Mechanically Robust 3D Graphene–Hydroxyapatite Hybrid Bioscaffolds with Enhanced Osteoconductive and Biocompatible Performance. Crystals 2018, 8, 105.

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