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Crystals 2017, 7(7), 223; doi:10.3390/cryst7070223

Structural Aspects of Porphyrins for Functional Materials Applications

1
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064, USA
2
Department of Chemistry, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064, USA
3
Materials Measurement Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Helmut Cölfen
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 22 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 15 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystallography of Functional Materials)

Abstract

Porphyrinic compounds comprise a diverse group of materials which have in common the presence of one or more cyclic tetrapyrroles known as porphyrins in their molecular structures. The resulting aromaticity gives rise to the semiconducting properties that make these compounds of interest for a broad range of applications, including artificial photosynthesis, catalysis, molecular electronics, sensors, non-linear optics, and solar cells. In this brief review, the crystallographic attributes of porphyrins are emphasized. Examples are given showing how the structural orientations of the porphyrin macrocycle, and the inter-porphyrin covalent bonding present in multiporphyrins influence the semiconducting properties. Beginning with porphine, the simplest porphyrin, we discuss how the more complex structures that have been reported are described by adding peripheral substituents and internal metalation to the macrocycles. We illustrate how the conjugation of the π-bonding, and the presence of electron donor/acceptor pairs, which are the basis for the semiconducting properties, are affected by the crystallographic topology. View Full-Text
Keywords: porphyrin; metalloporphyrin; crystal structure; crystallography; semiconductor; electrical conductivity; molecular electronics; covalent bonding; π-bonding; conjugation porphyrin; metalloporphyrin; crystal structure; crystallography; semiconductor; electrical conductivity; molecular electronics; covalent bonding; π-bonding; conjugation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Cook, L.P.; Brewer, G.; Wong-Ng, W. Structural Aspects of Porphyrins for Functional Materials Applications. Crystals 2017, 7, 223.

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