Next Article in Journal
Over-Production, Crystallization, and Preliminary X-ray Crystallographic Analysis of a Coiled-Coil Region in Human Pericentrin
Previous Article in Journal
Formation of Cellular Structure on Metastable Solidification of Undercooled Eutectic CoSi-62 at. %
Previous Article in Special Issue
Ultrasound Assisted Particle Size Control by Continuous Seed Generation and Batch Growth
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Crystals 2017, 7(10), 294; doi:10.3390/cryst7100294

The Effect of Ultrasound on the Crystallisation of Paracetamol in the Presence of Structurally Similar Impurities

1
Department of Chemical & Process Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XQ, UK
2
The Centre for Ultrasonic Engineering, Department of Electronic & Electrical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XW, UK
3
EPSRC Centre for Continuous Manufacturing and Crystallisation, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1RD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Judy Lee
Received: 17 August 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 26 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ultrasound Stimulated Crystallization)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [18121 KB, uploaded 30 September 2017]   |  

Abstract

Sono-crystallisation has been used to enhance crystalline product quality particularly in terms of purity, particle size and size distribution. In this work, the effect of impurities and ultrasound on crystallisation processes (nucleation temperature, yield) and crystal properties (crystal size distribution determined by Focused Beam Reflectance Measurement (FBRM), crystal habit, filtration rate and impurity content in the crystal product by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (LC-MS)) were investigated in bulk suspension crystallisation experiments with and without the use of ultrasound. The results demonstrate that ultrasonic intervention has a significant effect on both crystallisation and product crystal properties. It increases the nucleation rate resulting in smaller particles and a narrower Particle Size Distribution (PSD), the yield has been shown to be increase as has the product purity. The effect of ultrasound is to reduce the level acetanilide impurity incorporated during growth from a 2 mol% solution of the selected impurity from 0.85 mol% to 0.35 mol% and likewise ultrasound reduces the uptake of metacetamol from 1.88 mol% to 1.52 mol%. View Full-Text
Keywords: suspension crystallisation; impurities; crystal size distribution; filtration rate; optical microscopy; image analysis; crystal morphology; purification; HPLC; ultrasound intensity suspension crystallisation; impurities; crystal size distribution; filtration rate; optical microscopy; image analysis; crystal morphology; purification; HPLC; ultrasound intensity
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Nguyen, T.T.H.; Khan, A.; Bruce, L.M.; Forbes, C.; O’Leary, R.L.; Price, C.J. The Effect of Ultrasound on the Crystallisation of Paracetamol in the Presence of Structurally Similar Impurities. Crystals 2017, 7, 294.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Crystals EISSN 2073-4352 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top