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Crystals, Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2015), Pages 418-669

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Crystal Structures of Furazanes
Crystals 2015, 5(4), 418-432; doi:10.3390/cryst5040418
Received: 31 July 2015 / Revised: 4 September 2015 / Accepted: 14 September 2015 / Published: 24 September 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1223 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Several nitrogen-rich salts of 3-nitramino-4-nitrofurazane and dinitraminoazoxyfurazane were synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic methods. The crystal structures were determined by low temperature single crystal X-ray diffraction. Moreover the sensitivities toward thermal and mechanical stimuli were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and
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Several nitrogen-rich salts of 3-nitramino-4-nitrofurazane and dinitraminoazoxyfurazane were synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic methods. The crystal structures were determined by low temperature single crystal X-ray diffraction. Moreover the sensitivities toward thermal and mechanical stimuli were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and BAM (Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung) methods. The standard enthalpies of formation were calculated for all compounds at the CBS-4M level of theory, and the energetic performance was predicted with the EXPLO5 V6.02 computer code. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energetic Materials)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Crystal and Electronic Structures of the Pnictides AE3TrPn3 (AE = Sr, Ba; Tr = Al, Ga; Pn = P, As)
Crystals 2015, 5(4), 433-446; doi:10.3390/cryst5040433
Received: 3 September 2015 / Revised: 15 September 2015 / Accepted: 17 September 2015 / Published: 24 September 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3631 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The new ternary arsenides AE3TrAs3 (AE = Sr, Ba; Tr = Al, Ga) and their phosphide analogs Sr3GaP3 and Ba3AlP3 have been prepared by reactions of the respective elements at high temperatures.
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The new ternary arsenides AE3TrAs3 (AE = Sr, Ba; Tr = Al, Ga) and their phosphide analogs Sr3GaP3 and Ba3AlP3 have been prepared by reactions of the respective elements at high temperatures. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal that Sr3AlAs3 and Ba3AlAs3 adopt the Ba3AlSb3-type structure (Pearson symbol oC56, space group Cmce, Z = 8). This structure is also realized for Sr3GaP3 and Ba3AlP3. The compounds Sr3GaAs3 and Ba3GaAs3 crystallize with the Ba3GaSb3-type structure (Pearson symbol oP56, space group Pnma, Z = 8). Both structures are made up of isolated pairs of edge-shared AlPn4 and GaPn4 tetrahedra (Pn = pnictogen, i.e., P or As), separated by the alkaline-earth Sr2+ and Ba2+ cations. In both cases, there are no homoatomic bonds, hence, regardless of the slightly different atomic arrangements, both structures can be rationalized as valence-precise [AE2+]3[Tr3+][Pn3−]3, or rather [AE2+]6[Tr2Pn6]12−, i.e., as Zintl phases. Full article
Open AccessArticle Laser Annealing for Gas-Dynamical Spraying of HA Coating upon a Titanium Surface
Crystals 2015, 5(4), 447-457; doi:10.3390/cryst5040447
Received: 29 July 2015 / Revised: 18 September 2015 / Accepted: 28 September 2015 / Published: 8 October 2015
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Abstract
Laser post-heating computer controlled detonation spraying (CCDS) and cold spray (CS) hybrid processes were proposed for fabrication of near sub micron structure coatings of hydroxyapatite (HA) + Ti system. Optical and SEM with energy dispersive X-ray analysis and comparative XRD phase analysis were
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Laser post-heating computer controlled detonation spraying (CCDS) and cold spray (CS) hybrid processes were proposed for fabrication of near sub micron structure coatings of hydroxyapatite (HA) + Ti system. Optical and SEM with energy dispersive X-ray analysis and comparative XRD phase analysis were used to evaluate microstructure. After those hybrid processes, no substantial variation in HA composition was noted by structural and phase examination. Nano-sized HA powders can be recommended for laser annealing CS (LaCS) process. Regimes of laser treatment optimal for increasing the adhesion between the HA and titanium coatings, providing more strength, ductility and decreasing of HA destruction in the coatings were determined. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a 1D Chained Coordination Polymer Constructed from Ca2+ and 2-[(E)-(2-Furoylhydrazono)methyl]benzenesulfonate
Crystals 2015, 5(4), 458-465; doi:10.3390/cryst5040458
Received: 10 August 2015 / Revised: 8 October 2015 / Accepted: 8 October 2015 / Published: 15 October 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1312 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A new Ca(II) coordination polymer, [{CaL2·(H2O)2·2H2O}]n (1) (L = 2-[(E)-(2-furoylhydrazono)methyl]benzenesulfonate), has been obtained by one-pot method, and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectrum, and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The results showed that the
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A new Ca(II) coordination polymer, [{CaL2·(H2O)2·2H2O}]n (1) (L = 2-[(E)-(2-furoylhydrazono)methyl]benzenesulfonate), has been obtained by one-pot method, and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectrum, and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The results showed that the Ca(II) coordination crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group with P21212, a = 16.355(3) Å, b = 17.478(4) Å, c = 5.4549(11) Å, α =β = γ = 90.00°, V = 1559.3(5) Å3, Z = 2, Mr = 698.69, Dc = 1.488 g/cm3, T = 293(2) K, F(000) = 724, μ(MoKa) = 0.408 mm−1, R = 0.0703 and wR = 0.1848. The Ca(II) ion is coordinated with four O atoms from two L ligands and two O atoms from two coordinated H2O molecules, and generates a distorted octahedral geometry. The 1D chained structure of Ca(II) coordination polymer is constructed from the bridging of SO3 groups. The 3D network structure is formed by the hydrogen bonds and π-π interaction between 1D chains. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Molecular Structures of (E)-non-2-enoic Acid and (E)-dec-2-enoic Acid
Crystals 2015, 5(4), 466-474; doi:10.3390/cryst5040466
Received: 25 September 2015 / Revised: 9 October 2015 / Accepted: 10 October 2015 / Published: 16 October 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The molecular structures of (E)-non-2-enoic acid (C9) and (E)-dec-2-enoic acid (C10) are reported. The title compounds were crystallized by slow evaporation of ethanolic solutions at −30 °C. C9 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P
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The molecular structures of (E)-non-2-enoic acid (C9) and (E)-dec-2-enoic acid (C10) are reported. The title compounds were crystallized by slow evaporation of ethanolic solutions at −30 °C. C9 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c and C10 in the triclinic space group P-1, each with 4 molecules in the unit cell. The unit cell parameters for C9 are: a = 10.6473(4) Å, b = 5.2855(2) Å, c = 17.0313(7) Å; β = 106.0985(10)° and V = 920.87(6) Å3. The unit cell parameters for C10 are: a = 4.1405(2) Å, b = 15.2839(6) Å, c = 17.7089(7) Å; α = 68.3291(11)°, β = 83.3850(13)°, γ = 85.0779(12)° and V = 1033.39(8) Å3. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Crystal Structure and DFT Studies of 8-chloro-3-((3-chlorobenzyl)thio)-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridine
Crystals 2015, 5(4), 491-500; doi:10.3390/cryst5040491
Received: 19 August 2015 / Revised: 22 October 2015 / Accepted: 23 October 2015 / Published: 2 November 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1118 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
8-chloro-3-((3-chlorobenzyl)thio)-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridine was synthesized and recrystallized from EtOH. The compound was characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FTIR, MS, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction. The compound was crystallized in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with a = 8.1992(5),
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8-chloro-3-((3-chlorobenzyl)thio)-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridine was synthesized and recrystallized from EtOH. The compound was characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FTIR, MS, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction. The compound was crystallized in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with a = 8.1992(5), b = 21.7731(12), c = 7.8454(6) Å, α = 90, β = 108.421(7), γ = 90°, V = 1328.81 (15)Å3, Z = 4 and R = 0.0351. Theoretical calculation of the title compound was carried out with B3LYP/6-31G. The full geometry optimization was carried out by using the 6-31G basis set. The frontier orbital energy and atomic net charges were discussed. The experimental results of the compound have been compared with theoretical results and it was found that the experimental data shows good agreement with the calculated values. Full article
Open AccessArticle Physiochemical Characterization of Iodine (V) Oxide Part II: Morphology and Crystal Structure of Particulate Films
Crystals 2015, 5(4), 534-550; doi:10.3390/cryst5040534
Received: 16 September 2015 / Revised: 23 October 2015 / Accepted: 26 October 2015 / Published: 2 November 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3874 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this study, the production of particulate films of iodine (V) oxides is investigated. The influence that sonication and solvation of suspended particles in various alcohol/ketone/ester solvents have on the physical structure of spin or drop cast films is examined in detail with
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In this study, the production of particulate films of iodine (V) oxides is investigated. The influence that sonication and solvation of suspended particles in various alcohol/ketone/ester solvents have on the physical structure of spin or drop cast films is examined in detail with electron microscopy, powder x-ray diffraction, and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Results indicate that sonicating iodine oxides in alcohol mixtures containing trace amounts of water decreases deposited particle sizes and produces a more uniform film morphology. UV-visible spectra of the pre-cast suspensions reveal that for some solvents, the iodine oxide oxidizes the solvent, producing I2 and lowering the pH of the suspension. Characterizing the crystals within the cast films reveal their composition to be primarily HI3O8, their orientations to exhibit a preferential orientation, and their growth to be primarily along the ac-plane of the crystal, enhanced at higher spin rates. Spin-coating at lower spin rates produces laminate-like particulate films versus higher density, one-piece films of stacked particles produced by drop casting. The particle morphology in these films consists of a combination of rods, plates, cubes, and rhombohedra structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energetic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Quantitative Evaluation of Photoinduced Bending Speed of Diarylethene Crystals
Crystals 2015, 5(4), 551-561; doi:10.3390/cryst5040551
Received: 30 August 2015 / Revised: 30 October 2015 / Accepted: 30 October 2015 / Published: 6 November 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We investigated photoinduced crystal bending behavior of various photochromic diarylethenes. In all the diarylethene derivatives we used in this work, the relationship between the initial photoinduced bending speed and the crystal thickness was well explained by the easy-handled Timoshenkoʼs bimetal model. Moreover, we
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We investigated photoinduced crystal bending behavior of various photochromic diarylethenes. In all the diarylethene derivatives we used in this work, the relationship between the initial photoinduced bending speed and the crystal thickness was well explained by the easy-handled Timoshenkoʼs bimetal model. Moreover, we proposed a quantitative analysis method to reveal the relationship between the bending speed and the molecular structure of diarylethenes. These results provide the quantitative evaluation method of the photoinduced crystal bending speed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chiral Organic Crystal)
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Open AccessArticle Enthalpies of Formation of Transition Metal Diborides: A First Principles Study
Crystals 2015, 5(4), 562-582; doi:10.3390/cryst5040562
Received: 31 August 2015 / Accepted: 9 November 2015 / Published: 19 November 2015
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Abstract
The enthalpies of formation of transition metals diborides in various structures have been obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations in order to determine the ground state at T = 0 K and p = 0. The evolution of the enthalpies of formation
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The enthalpies of formation of transition metals diborides in various structures have been obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations in order to determine the ground state at T = 0 K and p = 0. The evolution of the enthalpies of formation along the 3D, 4D, and 5D series has been correlated to the considered crystal structures. In the whole, the calculated values of the enthalpies of formation of the diborides in their ground state are in good agreement with the experimental ones when available. The calculated values of the lattice parameters at T = 0 K of the ground state agree well with the experimental values. The total and partial electronic densities of states have been computed. Special features of the transition metal electronic partial density of states have been evidenced and correlated to the local environment of the atoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intermetallics)
Open AccessArticle Liquid-Assisted Grinding to Prepare a Cocrystal of Adefovir Dipivoxil Thermodynamically Less Stable than Its Neat Phase
Crystals 2015, 5(4), 583-591; doi:10.3390/cryst5040583
Received: 13 September 2015 / Revised: 25 October 2015 / Accepted: 12 November 2015 / Published: 19 November 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4672 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Liquid-assisted grinding was employed to generate a cocrystal of adefovir dipivoxil (AD) and glutaric acid (GLU), which had not been successfully obtained through solution crystallization. The cocrystal formation was confirmed with powder X-ray diffraction, and its thermal stability and release behavior were studied
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Liquid-assisted grinding was employed to generate a cocrystal of adefovir dipivoxil (AD) and glutaric acid (GLU), which had not been successfully obtained through solution crystallization. The cocrystal formation was confirmed with powder X-ray diffraction, and its thermal stability and release behavior were studied through differential scanning calorimetry and dissolution experiments, respectively. The AD/GLU cocrystal was less stable than neat AD phase and the previously reported AD cocrystals with other dicarboxylic acids, such as suberic acid and succinic acid. This suggests that the intermolecular interactions of the AD/GLU cocrystal are probably weaker than the other crystal phases. The release behavior of the AD/GLU was comparable with the cocrystal with suberic acid. The current study verifies the effectiveness of the liquid-assisted grinding for the preparation of the thermodynamically less stable cocrystal phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Cocrystals)
Open AccessArticle Influence of Boron on Initial Austenite Grain Size and Hot Deformation Behavior of Boron Microalloyed Steels
Crystals 2015, 5(4), 592-607; doi:10.3390/cryst5040592
Received: 11 October 2015 / Accepted: 16 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2341 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The initial austenite grain size of boron microalloyed steel with three different amounts of boron (20, 40, and 60 ppm) was investigated under different heating temperatures (1150, 1100, and 1050 °C), and hot compression tests of samples in a wide range of temperature
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The initial austenite grain size of boron microalloyed steel with three different amounts of boron (20, 40, and 60 ppm) was investigated under different heating temperatures (1150, 1100, and 1050 °C), and hot compression tests of samples in a wide range of temperature (900–1100 °C) and strain rate (0.1–10 s−1) were conducted. It was found that the initial austenite grain size increases with increasing temperature and boron content. The flow stress decreased with increasing boron content at lower strain rates. The flow stress constitutive equation of hot deformation was developed for the experimental steels; results showed that boron addition has the trend to reduce the hot deformation activation energy. The characteristic points of the flow curves were analyzed. Results revealed that the peak and critical stress decreased in response to an increase of boron content. The work-hardening behavior of both steels was investigated, and it was found that boron addition can decrease the work-hardening rate when strained at lower strain rates. On the contrary, peak and critical strains increased as boron content increased, indicating that boron has the ability to delay the onset of dynamic recrystallization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Boron-Based (Nano-)Materials: Fundamentals and Applications)
Open AccessArticle A New 1D Chained Coordination Polymer: Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Antitumor Activity and Luminescent Property
Crystals 2015, 5(4), 608-616; doi:10.3390/cryst5040608
Received: 12 October 2015 / Revised: 17 November 2015 / Accepted: 18 November 2015 / Published: 25 November 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1020 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A new 1D chained coordination polymer of Zn(II), {[Zn(L)2(4,4′-bipy)]·(H2O)}n(1) (HL = N-acetyl-l-phenylalanine; 4,4′-bipy = 4,4′-bipyridine) has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. Theresults show that each
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A new 1D chained coordination polymer of Zn(II), {[Zn(L)2(4,4′-bipy)]·(H2O)}n(1) (HL = N-acetyl-l-phenylalanine; 4,4′-bipy = 4,4′-bipyridine) has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. Theresults show that each asymmetric unit of Zn(II) complex belongs to monoclinic, space group P21 with a = 11.421(2) Å, b = 9.2213(17) Å, c = 15.188(3) Å,β = 106.112(3)°, V = 1536.7(5) Å3, Z = 2, Dc = 1.444 g·cm−3, µ = 0.857 mm−1, F(000) = 696, and final R1 = 0.0439, ωR2 = 0.1013. The molecules form one-dimensional chained structure by its the bridging 4,4′-bipyridine ligands. The antitumor activities and luminescent properties of Zn(II) coordination polymer have also been investigated. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Search for Hydrogen Stores on a Large Scale; A Straightforward and Automated Open Database Analysis as a First Sweep for Candidate Materials
Crystals 2015, 5(4), 617-633; doi:10.3390/cryst5040617
Received: 5 November 2015 / Revised: 17 November 2015 / Accepted: 18 November 2015 / Published: 25 November 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1702 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The storage of hydrogen is considered as the bottleneck in the implementation of portable fuel cell power generating systems. The necessary experimental studies to discover and develop appropriate storage materials are always time-limited. We discuss herein the approach of an uncomplicated and accessible
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The storage of hydrogen is considered as the bottleneck in the implementation of portable fuel cell power generating systems. The necessary experimental studies to discover and develop appropriate storage materials are always time-limited. We discuss herein the approach of an uncomplicated and accessible computationally based analysis of database knowledge towards the identification of promising storage systems. The open access policy of the Crystallography Open Database (COD) invites researchers to grasp the opportunity to formulate targeted analyses of crystalline solids, unfettered by material resources. We apply such an approach to the initial evaluation of potential solid-state hydrogen stores, although the method could potentially be transferred to other material analysis tasks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystalline Hydrogen Storage Materials)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A New Method for the Synthesis of Heterospin Complexes
Crystals 2015, 5(4), 634-649; doi:10.3390/cryst5040634
Received: 21 September 2015 / Revised: 17 November 2015 / Accepted: 20 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1281 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The interaction of binuclear Co(II) pivalate [Сo2(H2O)Piv4(HPiv)4] with nitronyl nitroxide HL1 (2-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole-3-oxide-1-oxyl) in organic solvents led to the formation of a pentanuclear heterospin complex [Co5(Piv)4L14L22
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The interaction of binuclear Co(II) pivalate [Сo2(H2O)Piv4(HPiv)4] with nitronyl nitroxide HL1 (2-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole-3-oxide-1-oxyl) in organic solvents led to the formation of a pentanuclear heterospin complex [Co5(Piv)4L14L22]. A nontrivial peculiarity of the complex is the presence of both the starting nitronyl nitroxide L1 and its deoxygenated derivative imino nitroxide L2 (HL2: 2-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole-1-oxyl) in its coordination sphere. Based on this, a new synthetic approach was developed, which suggests the use of both the starting radical and the product of its reduction in the reaction with the metal. The suggested approach is a new method for the synthesis of heterospin compounds, including those that cannot be obtained by other methods. It was shown that the reaction of Co(II) pivalate with a mixture of HL1 and HL2 can give a trinuclear heterospin complex [Co3(Piv)2L12L22]. The replacement of Co(II) by Ni(II) completely suppresses the reduction of HL1 into HL2, and Ni(II) pivalate does not react with HL1. The use of a known mixture of HL1 and HL2 in the reaction with [Ni2(H2O)Piv4(HPiv)4], however, led to the formation of a heterospin complex [Ni3L1L22(Piv)3(HPiv)3] also containing both nitronyl nitroxide and imino nitroxide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Spin Molecules)
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Open AccessArticle Crystal Structures, Thermal Analysis, and Dissolution Behavior of New Solid Forms of the Antiviral Drug Arbidol with Dicarboxylic Acids
Crystals 2015, 5(4), 650-669; doi:10.3390/cryst5040650
Received: 27 October 2015 / Revised: 20 November 2015 / Accepted: 1 December 2015 / Published: 4 December 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3395 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Salts of the antiviral drug arbidol (umifenovir) (Arb) with maleate (Mlc) and fumarate (Fum) anions have been obtained, and their crystal structures have been described. The crystal structure of arbidol maleate has been redetermined by single crystal
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Salts of the antiviral drug arbidol (umifenovir) (Arb) with maleate (Mlc) and fumarate (Fum) anions have been obtained, and their crystal structures have been described. The crystal structure of arbidol maleate has been redetermined by single crystal X-ray diffraction at 180K. A new arbidol cocrystal in zwitterion form with succinic acid (Suc) has also been found and characterized. The arbidol zwitterion was not previously seen in any of the drug crystal forms, and the [Arb + Suc] cocrystal seems to be the first found instance. Analysis of the conformational preferences of the arbidol molecule in the crystal structures has shown that it adopts two types of conformations, namely “open” and “closed” ones. Thermal stability of the arbidol salts and cocrystal have been analyzed by means of differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric, and mass-spectrometry analysis. The dissolution study of the arbidol salts and cocrystal performed in aqueous buffer solutions with pH 1.2 and 6.8 has shown that both the salts and the cocrystal dissolve incongruently to form an arbidol hydrochloride monohydrate at pH 1.2 and an arbidol base at pH 6.8, respectively. The cocrystal reaches the highest solubility level in both pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Cocrystals)

Review

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Open AccessReview Role of Water Molecules to the Electronic States of M-DNA
Crystals 2015, 5(4), 475-490; doi:10.3390/cryst5040475
Received: 20 September 2015 / Revised: 6 October 2015 / Accepted: 10 October 2015 / Published: 20 October 2015
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Abstract
Various kinds of roles of the water molecules in the electronic states of the complexes of metal ions (M) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are reviewed. Divalent metal ions M like Fe, Mn, Zn and so on, form Metal-DNA complexes (M-DNA) with each metal
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Various kinds of roles of the water molecules in the electronic states of the complexes of metal ions (M) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are reviewed. Divalent metal ions M like Fe, Mn, Zn and so on, form Metal-DNA complexes (M-DNA) with each metal ion between the bases of a base pair of DNA. The electronic states of the complexes depend on the species of ions in M-DNA. Metal ions in Fe-DNA and Mn-DNA possess 3d magnetic moments, but those in Zn-DNA do not. Interestingly, the magnetic property of the complexes, especially the magnetic interaction between the metal ions, is dominated by water molecules in the complexes. In Fe-DNA, the water molecules play a role of ligands for the iron ions, which controls the spin states of Fe3+, whereas they govern the magnetic interaction between the Mn2+ ions in Mn-DNA. In contrast, Zn-DNA has no 3d magnetic moment, but the water molecules dominate the bonding states of the Zn ions and the magnetic states of the Zn-DNA system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Spin Molecules)
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Open AccessReview Nano-Objects and Ions in Liquid Crystals: Ion Trapping Effect and Related Phenomena
Crystals 2015, 5(4), 501-533; doi:10.3390/cryst5040501
Received: 6 October 2015 / Revised: 25 October 2015 / Accepted: 26 October 2015 / Published: 2 November 2015
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (1160 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The presence of ions in liquid crystals is one of the grand challenges that hinder the application of liquid crystals in various devices, which include advanced 3-D and flexible displays, tunable lenses, etc. Not only do they compromise the overall performance of liquid
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The presence of ions in liquid crystals is one of the grand challenges that hinder the application of liquid crystals in various devices, which include advanced 3-D and flexible displays, tunable lenses, etc. Not only do they compromise the overall performance of liquid crystal devices, ions are also responsible for slow response, image sticking, and image flickering, as well as many other negative effects. Even highly purified liquid crystal materials can get contaminated during the manufacturing process. Moreover, liquid crystals can degrade over time and generate ions. All of these factors raise the bar for their quality control, and increase the manufacturing cost of liquid crystal products. A decade of dedicated research has paved the way to the solution of the issues mentioned above through merging liquid crystals and nanotechnology. Nano-objects (guests) that are embedded in the liquid crystals (hosts) can trap ions, which decreases the ion concentration and electrical conductivity, and improves the electro-optical response of the host. In this paper, we (i) review recently published works reporting the effects of nanoscale dopants on the electrical properties of liquid crystals; and (ii) identify the most promising inorganic and organic nanomaterials suitable to capture ions in liquid crystals. Full article
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