Crystals 2013, 3(1), 1-13; doi:10.3390/cryst3010001
Article

Is the Registry Between Adjacent Graphene Layers Grown on C-Face SiC Different Compared to That on Si-Face SiC

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Received: 16 November 2012; in revised form: 17 December 2012 / Accepted: 9 January 2013 / Published: 15 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphenes)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Graphene grown on C-face SiC substrates using two procedures, high and low growth temperature and different ambients, was investigated using Low Energy Electron Microscopy (LEEM), X-ray Photo Electron Electron Microscopy (XPEEM), selected area Low Energy Electron Diffraction (μ-LEED) and selected area Photo Electron Spectroscopy (μ-PES). Both types of samples showed formation of μm-sized grains of graphene. The sharp (1 × 1) μ-LEED pattern and six Dirac cones observed in constant energy photoelectron angular distribution patterns from a grain showed that adjacent layers are not rotated relative to each other, but that adjacent grains in general have different azimuthal orientations. Diffraction spots from the SiC substrate appeared in μ-LEED patterns collected at higher energies, showing that the rotation angle between graphene and SiC varied. C 1s spectra collected did not show any hint of a carbon interface layer. A hydrogen treatment applied was found to have a detrimental effect on the graphene quality for both types of samples, since the graphene domain/grain size was drastically reduced. From hydrogen treated samples, μ-LEED showed at first a clear (1 × 1) pattern, but within minutes, a pattern containing strong superstructure spots, indicating the presence of twisted graphene layers. The LEED electron beam was found to induce local desorption of hydrogen. Heating a hydrogenated C-face graphene sample did not restore the quality of the original as-grown sample.
Keywords: C-face graphene; layer registry; large grain sizes; sublimation growth; hydrogen treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Johansson, L.I.; Xia, C.; Hassan, J.U.; Iakimov, T.; Zakharov, A.A.; Watcharinyanon, S.; Yakimova, R.; Janzén, E.; Virojanadara, C. Is the Registry Between Adjacent Graphene Layers Grown on C-Face SiC Different Compared to That on Si-Face SiC. Crystals 2013, 3, 1-13.

AMA Style

Johansson LI, Xia C, Hassan JU, Iakimov T, Zakharov AA, Watcharinyanon S, Yakimova R, Janzén E, Virojanadara C. Is the Registry Between Adjacent Graphene Layers Grown on C-Face SiC Different Compared to That on Si-Face SiC. Crystals. 2013; 3(1):1-13.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Johansson, Leif I.; Xia, Chao; Hassan, Jawad U.; Iakimov, Tihomir; Zakharov, Alexei A.; Watcharinyanon, Somsakul; Yakimova, Rositza; Janzén, Erik; Virojanadara, Chariya. 2013. "Is the Registry Between Adjacent Graphene Layers Grown on C-Face SiC Different Compared to That on Si-Face SiC." Crystals 3, no. 1: 1-13.

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